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Ukraine on the way to independence. First years of the independence (1986-1994). Plan • Social, political and economic situation in Ukraine (1986-1991) • Ukraine in the first years of independence. Presidency of Leonid Kravchuk.
Social, political and economic situation in Ukraine (1986-1991) • communist ideology lost its authority • spring of 1989 – the first free elections were held in the USSR • July 16, 1990 the Parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. • August 19, 1991 – an attempt of the state upheaval, striving to turn the country life to the state before 1985 was made.
August 24 –“The Bill of Independence Announcement of Ukraine” was approved. • December 1, 1991 – the referendum on confirmation of “The Bill of Independence Announcement of Ukraine” took place. • A week after the referendum, Borys Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk, and S. Shushkevych announced at the meeting in Minsk that the USSR no longer existed. • Leonid Kravchuk became the first President of Ukraine.
Coat of arms of Ukraine Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine in the first years of independence. Presidency of Leonid Kravchuk. • positive developments: • the media became much more open • substantial development in religious life • relations with minority groups were peaceful
negative developments: • economic decline • corruption increased • numerous social ills • the relations between Ukraine and Russia were tense
contentious issues: • the nature of participation in the CIS • nuclear disarmament • the status of the Crimea • control of the Black Sea Fleet and its port city of Sevastopol
Leonid Kravchuk • achieved and strengthened sovereignty of the country • develop its relations with the West • refused of nuclear weapons based on Ukrainian territory • failed to avoid corruption • annual inflation rates from 1992 to 1994 reached thousands of percents • The collapse of the Black Sea Steamship Company – the saddest symbol of the Kravchuk era
a Ukrainianpolitician, • the first President of Ukraine (from December 5, 1991 until July 19, 1994), • a former Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada Leonid Kravchuk
Geography • At 603,700 kilometres² (233,074 sq mi) and with a coastline of 2,782 kilometres (1,729 mi), Ukraine is the world's 44th-largest country (after the Central African Republic, before Madagascar). • It is the second largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France).
The Ukrainian landscape consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. • The country's only mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 m (6,762 ft), and those on the Crimean peninsula, in the extreme south along the coast.
Economy • With the collapse of the Soviet system, the country moved from a planned economy to a market economy. • Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. • The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas, and to a large extent depends on Russia as its energy supplier. • While 25 percent of the natural gas in Ukraine comes from internal sources, about 35 percent comes from Russia and the remaining 40 percent from Central Asia through transit routes that Russia controls.
The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state.[ • By July 2008 the average nominal salary in Ukraine reached 1,930 hryvnias per month.[92 • Significant issues include underdeveloped infrastructure and transportation, corruption and bureaucracy. • Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. • Ukraine is recognised as a world leader in producing missiles and missile related technology.
Culture • Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Christianity, which is the dominant religion in the country. • The tradition of the Easter egg, known as pysanky, has long roots in Ukraine. • In the city of Kolomya near the foothills of the Carpathian mountains in 2000 was built the museum of Pysanka which won a nomination as the monument of modern Ukraine in 2007, part of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine action.
Popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese or cherries), borsch (soup made of beets, cabbage and mushrooms or meat) and holubtsy (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots and meat).
It was founded in 1796 by CountStanisław Szczęsny Potocki, a noble Polish szlahtich. The park is named after his Greek wife Sofia and was built in 1802. It's one of the world famous garden-park art creations. There are many scenic areas in the park including waterfalls, fountains, ponds and a stone garden. It is one of the most famous examples of late 17th or early 18th century European landscape garden design that has been preserved to the present time.
Since its foundation as the cave monastery in 1015 the Lavra has been a prominent center of the Eastern Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe. Together with the Saint-Sophia Cathedral, it is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Currently, the jurisdiction over the site is divided between the state museum, National Kyiv-Pechersk Historic-Cultural Preserve, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church as the site of the chief monastery of that Church and the residence of its leader, Metropolitan Volodymyr.
3. Kamianets-Podilskyi Historical Complex inKamianets-Podilskyi, Khmelnytskyi Oblast
The Stephen Báthory Gate is part of the city's old fortification complex.
Nowadays, Khortysia is designated a national museum. The rural landscape of the island features the Zaporizhian CossackMuseum and a Cossack horse show. The museum building is modern, nestling low in the landscape with dramatic views of the Dnieper Hydroelectric Station to the north. The museum contains exhibits dating from the Stone Age through the Scythian period (c.750 - 250 BC) down to the 20th century, including a model of the Pecheneg ambush which claimed the life of Svyatoslav in 972 and a panorama representing the Battle for Zaporizhia, fought during World War II on October 14, 1943.
5. Chersonesos in Sevastopol
Chersonesos was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as Taurica. The colony was established in the 6th century BC. Chersonesos' ancient ruins are presently located in one of Sevastopol's suburbs. The buildings mix influences of Greek, Roman and Byzantine culture. The defensive wall is hundreds of meters long. Buildings include Roman amphitheatre and a Greek temple.
The Khotyn Fortress is a fortification complex located on the shores of the Dniester River in Khotyn, Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine. Construction on the current fortress was started in 1325, while major improvements were made in the 1380s and in the 1460s. The fortress is a large tourist attraction for the area and Ukraine. It is also a National Ukrainian Architectural Preserve as of 2000.
Language • According to the Constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. • According to the 2001 census, 67.5 percent of the population declared Ukrainian as their native language and 29.6 percent declared Russian. • Most native Ukrainian speakers know Russian as a second language. • Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. • In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used • In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and surzhyk is used in rural areas.
Demographics • According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, ethnic Ukrainians make up 77.8% of the population. • Other significant ethnic groups are Russians (17.3%), Belarusians (0.6%), Moldovans (0.5%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Bulgarians (0.4%), Hungarians (0.3%), Romanians (0.3%), Poles (0.3%), Jews (0.2%), Armenians (0.2%), Greeks (0.2%) and Tatars (0.2%).
The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about 67.2 percent of the population lives in urban areas. • Ukraine is considered to be in a demographic crisis due to its high death rate and a low birth rate. • A factor contributing to the relatively high death is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking.
To help mitigate these trends, the government continues to increase child support payments. Thus it provides one-time payments of 12,250 hryvniasfor the first child, 25,000 hryvnias for the second and 50,000 hryvnias for the third and fourth, along with monthly payments of 154 hryvnias per child.
Lilacs in the Central Botanical Garden, with Vydubychi Monastery and the Left Bank of Kiev in the background.
General view of the Andriyivskyy Descent with the Castle of Richard Lionheart on the left and the St Andrew's Church in the background.