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  1. WARM UP The year is 1865, and at last the Civil War is over. The South’s primary labor system, slavery, has been abolished. About 4.5 million African Americans now have their freedom but lack money, property, education, and opportunity. Southern states are beginning the process of readmission to the Union, but the effects of war continue to be felt throughout the South. Rail lines are unusable. Farms, plantations, and factories lie in ruins. What goals should the government set to reconstruct the South? • How can Northern resources help the South? • In what ways can the South rebuild its economy? • What can the government do to assist African Americans?

  2. Reconstruction 1865-1877

  3. Political Turmoil • Andrew Johnson becomes President in April, 1865 when Lincoln is assassinated • Only senator from a Confederate state to remain loyal to Union • Lincoln chose Johnson as VP to help w/ reunite Nation after war • Lincoln had devised a plan for “Reconstruction” of the US after the war • Some Republicans were angry with Lincoln’s plan • These become known as Radical Republicans • Radicals Republicans wanted to punish the south & give full rights to African Americans • Thaddeus Stevens is leader of Radical Republicans • Johnson takes office with Republicans thinking he would submit to their ideas for Reconstruction

  4. President Andrew Johnson Radical Republican Leader Thaddeus Stevens

  5. Lincoln’s Plan • Known as 10% Plan • Wanted to be lenient on the South • Included pardon of most Confederates (excluded high ranking officials) if they would swear loyalty to Union • After 10% of those on the 1860 voting list swore loyalty, a state could form a new gov’t and gain representation in Congress • States must ratify 13th Amendment (freed ALL slaves) • Lincoln also set up the Freedmen’s Bureau to help freed slaves & poor whites • 4 states return under Lincoln’s plan: Ark, Tenn, Virg, Louis. • Radical Republicans didn’t like Lincoln’s plan • RR argue that it’s too weak; also thought Congress should determine Reconstruction • They pass the Wade-Davis Bill, saying a majority (not 10% would have to swear loyalty) • Lincoln vetoed the bill

  6. Johnson’s Plan • Known as Presidential Reconstruction • Very similar to Lincoln’s plan • Remaining Southern states would have to withdraw secession, swear loyalty to union, annul war debts, ratify 13th Amendment • Didn’t want high ranking Confederates & wealthy to be allowed to swear loyalty (regain rights) • Plan didn’t address needs of former slaves • South will enact Black Codes to keep former slaves from gaining rights/power • Southern states quickly comply & elect congressmen • When Congress started in Dec.1865, Radical Republicans refuse to admit new Southern Reps. • Thought Johnson’s plan wasn’t enough • Congress enlarges Freedmen’s Bureau in 1866 • Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1866 – gives citizenship to blacks

  7. Johnson’s Response & Congressional Plan • Johnson vetoed both Freedmen’s Bureau Act & Civil Rights Act • Republicans banded together to override Johnson’s veto • Congress also adds 14th Amendment to give Constitutional basis for Civil Rights Act • Amendment guarantees “equal protection under the law” • Johnson advises South to reject amendment • All southern states but Tennessee reject it • In 1867 Congress passes Reconstruction Act of 1867 • Didn’t recognize state gov’ts under Lincoln or Johnson’s plan • Southern states divided into 5 military districts • To re-enter union, states had to accept 14th Amend & allow black males the right to vote • Johnson vetoes; Congress overrides the veto


  9. Impeachment • President Johnson was impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act • Congress had passed TOA to protect Sec. of War Edwin Stanton • Johnson fired Stanton to protest TOA; Congress impeaches Johnson on 11 counts • Trial took place in the Senate between Mar-May, 1868 • Senate needed 2/3 majority to remove Johnson • Final vote was 35 to 19 (1 short of 2/3 majority needed) • Johnson finished his term with no legitimate power • After the election, Congress passed the 15th Amendment which gave African Americans males the right to vote

  10. Southern Society • New Southern Politics • Dominated by 3 groups • Scalawags – Southerners who sided w/ Northern Republicans • Carpetbaggers – Northerners who came south for profit • “Black Republicans” – newly freed African Americans who got involved in politics (usually on the local or state levels) • Hiram Revels – 1st African American congressman • Economy • Much of the land had been damaged or neglected during the war • Also, plantation system collapsed once slaves were freed • Most farmers (both former slaves & poor whites) resorted to sharecropping or tenant farming • Cotton was also no longer profitable; farmers turn to a variety of crops

  11. 1st African American Congressman Hiram Revels Above: Southern view of a carpetbagger

  12. Freed Slaves • Former slaves were exposed to many new opportunities after the war (politics, education, land ownership, etc.) • Many moved away from plantations into cities • Family reunification was common, due to many families being split during slavery • Many former slaves learned to read and write • Even a few colleges begin for blacks (Hampton Institute & Howard University) • African Americans fought black codes early during Reconstruction & still faced persecution later on • The Ku Klux Klan began to terrorize blacks • Most African Americans continued farming as sharecroppers or tenant farmers

  13. Different Views of Reconstruction: Left: early KKK members circa 1871 Top Right: Graduating law class of Howard University Bottom Right: sharecropper

  14. End to Reconstruction • Ulysses S. Grant won election in 1868 & again in 1872 • He served 2 terms with little accomplishment/lots of scandal • Election of 1876 was closely contested between Rutherford B. Hayes (R) & Samuel Tilden (D) • Tilden won the popular vote, but was 1 electoral vote short of a majority (20 electoral votes disputed) • Election was given to Hayes, but the House of Reps had to approve • Dems would approve IF military reconstruction was ended & a Southerner was appointed to the cabinet • Compromise of 1877 • The South finally achieved “home rule” – no federal interference in state affairs

  15. Election of 1876 Results