Warm-up • Name the people in this image • How does this scene in the book as well as in this image, depict an essential Roman Value?
The Emperors of RomeNo Longer in BCE! Three Stages Age of Augustus: 31 BCE- 14 CE The Julio-Claudian Dynasty- 14 CE- 16 CE Flavian Dynasty-69 CE- 96CE 5 Good Emperors 96 CE- 180Ce
The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Tiberius 14-37 CE Caligula 37-41 CE Claudius 41-54 CE Nero 54-68 CE
Julio-Claudian Line- Hereditary Rule • Why was the first century so turbulent? The first answer is simple: hereditary rule. • Emperors could only survive if their people believed they could out perform everyone else. • It was a job for life, so if an emperor was mad, bad or dangerous, the only solution was to cut that life short. Everybody knew it, so paranoia ruled.
The Senate under the Julio-Claudians • The senate gained some responsibilities: • Elections of magistrates held in Senate • Senate became the Chief Court for Criminal Trial • Claudius gave certain provinces back to the senate's control, including Britain. • It lost responsibilities in other areas to freedmen and equestrians • Sejanus, an equestrian, became very powerful as Praetorian prefect under Tiberius. • Claudius had freedmen secretaries, e.g. Narcissus. • Membership was extended to non-Italians, a topic on which Claudius addressed the senate. • Nero used Seneca, the stoic philosopher, as a liaison between the senate and princeps.
The Provinces under the Julio-Claudians Five new provinces were added • Mauretania in two sections • Lycia • Thrace • Britain Rebellions occurred under Nero • Judea • Britain • Armenia • Parthia
Years of Trial – After Augustus • Although Augustus was dead, his dynasty lived on. • Augustus had outlived his preferred heirs - his two grandsons. So when he died, it was his son-in-law, Tiberius, who became emperor. • With no sons of his own, Tiberius named his great-nephew, Caligula, as his heir.
The Accession of Tiberius 14-37CE • Augustus entrusted matters of great importance to Tiberius from early on. • Augustus forced Tiberius to divorce his wife and marry Augustus' daughter, Julia. • After the grandsons of Augustus died, Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and heir. • Tiberius, at the death of Augustus, was the only family member with the experience and maturity to rule. Tiberius’ Policy • He maintained Augustus' basic political arrangement. • He avoided emphasis on his own authority. • He also followed Augustus' foreign policy of maintaining borders along natural boundaries. • He seemed to have little ambition for self-promotion, leaving day-to-day administration to subordinates. • Tiberius abandoned Rome and ruled from Capri, an island in the bay of Naples, for the last 10 years of his life.
Tiberius: an evil side • Tiberius sent his young, charismatic nephew, Germanicus, to Germany to subdue rebelling soldiers • Germanicusdied in mysterious circumstances in 19CE. Many thought he had been poisoned and blamed Tiberius. • Sejanus, Tiberius’ aide, exiled Germanicus’ widow before killing her two elder sons. Only the youngest, Caligula, was spared. • He would become Tiberius’ heir. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2C4lEJ4ASY
Caligula 37-41CE • Seen as a welcome breath of fresh air when he took the throne, Caligula’s (12 – 41CE / Reigned 37 – 41CE) eccentricities soon became terrifying and he was murdered after just five years in power. • Fell ill (epilepsy?)- Acted odd after. • Following his illness he held extremely spectacular games, sometimes appearing as a gladiator himself, and lavished attention on his favourite racehorse, Incitatus (who he stated would make a senator). • He also talked of invading Britain, but when his army reached the Channel, he ordered the legionaries to collect seashells – this he claimed as a victory over Neptune.
Suetonius – ‘Caligula could not control his natural brutality’ • Then his eccentricities became more murderous. His paranoia spared no one, not even his family. • At other times, his cruelty was more random, as his delight in killing became evident. • All this time, Caligula was spending vast quantities of money (he built a temple for himself). • In 41CE, four months after he returned from Gaul, he was murdered by his closest advisors, including members of his Praetorian Guard.
The Line Continues… • After the terror and paranoia of Tiberius and Caligula, a relative calm and competent Emperor emerges in the form of Claudius, but alas it was not to last with Nero…
Claudius, the man • Disfigured, awkward and clumsy, Claudius (10BCE – 54CE / Reigned 41 – 54CE) was the black sheep of his family and an unlikely emperor. • He was the Augustus’ uncle, Germanicus’ brother. • Left disfigured by a serious illness when he was very young, he was the butt of his family’s jokes.
Claudius the reluctant Emperor 41-54CE • After Caligula’s murder in 41CE, he was found hiding in the palace, fearful for his own life. • Supported mainly by soldiers and courtiers, he had a rocky relationship with the Senate. • It was rumoured that he paid the Praetorians 15000 sesterce (brass coin, HS) each to ensure their support. • It was this support that would ensure his survival.
Claudius the good Emperor • Claudius worked hard at his job, starting work just after midnight every day. • He made major improvements to Rome’s judicial system, passed laws protecting sick slaves, extended citizenship and increased women's privileges. • He was active in public works projects and the harbor at Ostia. • He treated people with unusual respect.
Claudius in Britain • Britain had resisted Roman rule for over a century, but was conquered by Claudius in 43CE. • This was the most important addition to the empire since the time of Augustus. • He gave the administration of Britain to a senator proconsul – he respected the senate. • Rome would remain there for over 200 years.
Claudius and his Women • He was constantly under threat, the Senate and Equites were always dissatisfied. • Yet his worst enemies were his wives. • Although he adored his wife, Messalina, she was extravagant and promiscuous, so in 48CE he had her murdered.
Claudius & His Death • The next year, Claudius decided to marry again, surprising Rome by choosing his own niece, Agrippina. • This was a bad mistake as she would do anything to make her son Nero Emperor. • It was said she poisoned him with mushrooms.
Nero 54-68 CE • Sensitive and handsome, Nero (37 – 68CE / reigned 54 – 68CE) started out well as emperor. • Nero didn’t want to be controlled by his mother, Agrippina the Younger, relations became frosty and in 56CE she was forced into retirement. • Nero started well. He ended secret trials and gave the Senate more independence.
Nero & His Darker Side • However, like Caligula before him, Nero had a dark side. • Relations between mother and son grew worse and Nero decided to kill her. • Conflict between Nero and his ambitious mother Agrippina the Younger, Tacitus relates how Nero tried to kill his mother in a boating "accident." • When this fails, an armed guard is sent to murder her. • Rome was appalled, matricide was a heinous crime.
Nero & the Great Fire July 64 CE • The fire raged for over a week, destroying 70% of the city • Contributing factors to the destruction: • Roman buildings contained much wood. • The water supply was not sufficient for the crisis. • The buildings were close together, with no open space or fire walls. • Tacitus reported that gangs exacerbated the fire. • In the wake of the fire, Nero blames the Christians • He perhaps was trying to disguise his own guilt. • Or, trying to find a scapegoat for public distress. • Tacitus, despite his very negative view of Christians, blamed Nero. • Nero took advantage of the fire to build his grand palace, the Domus Aurea (Golden House).
Nero, Return of Terror • In late 64 CE Nero faced numerous revolts. • Reckless spending replaced leadership. • To divert his unpopularity, Nero ordered the first recorded persecution of Christians. Most Romans had no fondness for this new sect but they grew disgusted when they saw Christians being coated with pitch and ignited as human torches in the circus to please the emperor.
Nero, a Fitting End • In 67 CE Nero returned to Rome (after participating in the Olympics in Greece). He faced numerous revolts and opposition. • But Rome had had enough, the Senate declared Nero a public enemy. • Terrified, Nero fled to the country with his few remaining slaves and committed suicide on 8 June 68 CE crying: “What an artist dies in me!” • Nero left behind a half bankrupt empire in the grip of civil war.
The Inglorious End to the Julio-Claudian Dynasty • It was a tumultuous rule. • Examples of unbridled cruelty and madness were matched unequalled prowess of rule. • It is a legacy that forever changed the face of Rome. • Made each man; Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero immortal.
VESPASIAN (69 AD – 79 AD) • Eventually won control in the civil war and consolidated the Empire which had begun to fragment • Granted citizenship to non-Italian • Stabilized government spending • Replenished the treasury • Built roads • Most famous for sacking Jerusalem, destroying the Temple, and dispersing the Jews in 70 CE
TITUS (79 CE – 81 CE • Son of Vespasian • Known as “the light of the world” • Very popular • Ruled during the destruction of Pompeii • Finished the construction of the Colosseum
DOMITIAN (81 CE – 96 CE) • Brother of Titus • “Holy Terror” • Murdered after 15 years by people in his own household • Persecuted Jews and Christians • Otherwise governed well
THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS • After Nero’s death, the Senate and the army played a more active role in the selection of the emperor • Between 96 CE and 180 CE, the Romans handled the problem of succession by having each emperor select a younger colleague to train as a successor. • Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius • Resulted in almost a century of stability
NERVA (96 CE – 98 CE) • Older, gentler senator • Elected emperor by the Senate • Began tradition of the present ruler finding and adopting the “best man” and making him successor
TRAJAN (98 CE – 117 CE) • First Roman emperor of non-Italian origin (Spanish) • Great ruler • Extended the Empire to its greatest extent • Kept the Senate informed about his campaigns, and waited for their approval before signing treaties • Popular with the public because he greatly increased Rome’s wealth through military conquest • Also popular because spent large sums on building aqueducts, temples and public baths • Also very popular with the army • Buried under his column in the Roman Forum
Extent of Roman Influence in Empire • Aqueducts in Israel • Roman Baths in England
HADRIAN (117 CE – 138 CE) • Brilliant and versatile • Excellent administator and brave soldier • He consolidated the Empire and built walls in Scotland and along the Rhine River to contain the Barbarians • Gifted architect • Built the Pantheon • Constructed the Castel Saint Angelo, a beautiful fortress tomb which still stands in Rome.
ANTONIUS (138 CE – 161 CE) • Just and honest • Empire reached its peak under his guidance • Ruled during years of tranquility • His death is associate by many with the end of the Pax Romana
MARCUS AURELIUS (161CE–180 CE) • Ruled during times of trouble during which barbarians rose in many areas • Plague also killed ¼ of the people in the Republic during his reign • Stoic • Philosopher Emporer
The happiness of your life depends upon the quality of your thoughts: therefore, guard accordingly, and take care that you entertain no notions unsuitable to virtue and reasonable nature.—Marcus Aurelius