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Warm up

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Warm up

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  1. Warm up Does punishment really work with teens? If so, when is it most effective? Is there anything that might be more effective than punishment? What?

  2. Learning & Operating Conditions Part I -Reinforcement & Punishment

  3. Operating Conditioning • B.F. Skinner, behavioral psychologist • Show video • A behavior is learned in connection with reward or punishment • Any response that is followed by a reinforcement stimulus tends to be repeated

  4. More about operant conditioning • Operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary” or operant behavior“. • Also looks at schedules of reinforcement - but that is Friday’s lesson.

  5. Operant Conditioning Chamberaka “The Skinner Box” • Allowed him to explore the rate of response as a dependent variable. • Allowed him to develop his theory of schedules of reinforcement.

  6. Operant Conditioning that… • Encourages behavior • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement • Discourages Behavior • Positive Punishment • Negative Punishment

  7. Positive Reinforcement Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution was delivered when the rat engaged in a target behavior.

  8. Negative Reinforcement • Following a behavior by stopping or taking away something unpleasant • Reinforcer is unpleasant in some way – discomfort, fear, annoyance, social disapproval, etc. • In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement was a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engaged in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.

  9. Negative Punishment • Discouraging behaviour by following it with unpleasant consequences. • Also called “punishment by contingent withdrawal“. • Occurs when a behaviour (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. • Eg.- having your cell phone or car confiscated.

  10. Positive Punishment • Discouraging a behavior by adding something that is not pleasurable. • Also called “Punishment by contingent stimulation“. • Occurs when a behaviour (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus (such as a song), which is not removed until there is a decrease in that behavior. • Eg. Having a chore added to your list of chores

  11. To recap

  12. Your Turn!!! • With a partner, come up with your own example for each of the following: • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement • Positive Punishment • Negative Punishment

  13. Let’s Share!!! • Share your examples with someone next to you to make sure they are correct • Read your example to the class. • Each group will decide what to label the example. • When an example is read, hold up the corresponding sign as to what your group thinks it is.