Let’s Review… Presidents… • George Washington • John Adams • Thomas Jefferson • James Madison • James Monroe
Election of 1824 • Who ran… • John Quincy Adams – Democratic-Republican • William Crawford • Henry Clay • Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican • Who won… • Jackson won popular votes BUT • John Quincy Adams won the electoral vote so he won the election
Election of 1824 – 6th President • John Quincy Adams becomes the 6th President of the United States • He was a Democratic- Republican • John Adam’s son • he was disliked by most like his father
Election of 1828 • Jackson claimed to represent the “common man” • Jackson felt a connection with normal, everyday common people • JQ Adams felt a connection with the wealthy, privileged people • Jackson & Adams were both Democratic-Republicans BUT they represented different groups of people.
Split Party • Since Adams and Jackson represented different groups of people, the party split. • Adams’ supporters became known as Republicans • Jackson’s supporters became known as Democrats
Election of 1828 – Andrew Jackson • Jackson promised to look out for the interests of the common people. • The idea of spreading political power to all the people and ensuring majority rule became known as Jacksonian democracy. • Jackson began giving jobs to his supporters and friends – he backed the majority
Election of 1828 • Andrew Jackson won the election of 1828 to become the 7th President • Jackson’s humble background and reputation as a war hero helped make him President. • He was the first President who wasn’t from a rich Mass. or Virginia family. • Thousands of people came to Jackson’s inauguration, this showed Jackson’s popularity.
Spoils System • Jackson began his Presidency by replacing many government jobs & officials with his supporters and friends. (ordinary citizens) • The spoils systembecame known as the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.
Indians in America • Since 1600, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more and more of their land. • By the 1820s, about 100,000 Native Americans remained east of the Mississippi River. • Andrew Jackson had long supported a policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
Indian Removal Act • Jackson believed the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans could live. • Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act • This required Native Americans to move west.
Map of Indian Removal Act Mississippi River
Indian Territory • As whites invaded Indian homelands, many Native Americans began signing treaties exchanging their land for land in the West. • Worcester v. Georgia – supreme court decision that forced Indians to move west. • Indian Territory – Parts of Oklahoma Native American Indians were forced to move to by Andrew Jackson and the Supreme Court.
Map of Indian Removal Act Indian Territory
Trail of Tears • Many Cherokees refused to move West. Jackson made soldiers force Cherokees into camps and made them set out on a long, hard journey to Indian Territory. • ¼ of the Indians on the journey died. • Trail of Tears – The journey of Cherokee Indians being forced off their homeland to Indian Territory
Was Jackson right? • People with racial hatred in their hearts in power always think Law and Justice is on their side. • President Andrew Jackson did not have the law on his side when he marched 4,000 Cherokee to their deaths on the Trail of Tears. • "JOHN MARSHALL HAS MADE HIS LAW NOW LET HIM ENFORCE IT", Andrew Jackson to the Supreme Court when ordered to leave the Cherokee alone.
Jackson and the Indians • Andrew Jackson had the greatest impact on the Indians of all Presidents before and after him
Tariffs • Many lands had been acquired by time Andrew Jackson became President. • Tariffs – taxes on imported goods – became an issue • Revenue tariff – used to raise money, like sales tax. These taxes are usually low. • Protective tariff – to persuade people to buy goods in their own country instead of purchasing foreign-made products. These are high taxes that protect American companies.
Protective tariff vs. no tariff $2.50 to produce in Britain $1.00 profit $4.90 $3.50 = = Tariff 40% + + $3.00 to produce in the U.S. $1.00 profit $4.00 $4.00 = = + Cheaper for products made in the U.S. – encourages people to buy American products
Tariffs • Northerners supported high tariffs because the American manufacturers sell their products at a lower price than imported goods. • Factories & manufacturers were in the North • The Southdid not support high tariffs because its economy depended on foreign trade. • They needed foreign products
Tariff of Abominations • Tariff of Abominations – a law passed that raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods. • Southerners were outraged • They had to sell their cotton at low prices • The state of South Carolina threatened to secede, or leave the Union (United States), because of the Tariff of Abominations. • They were upset – bad for the economy
Doctrine of Nullification • John Calhoun did not want S. Carolina to leave the Union so he passed the Doctrine of Nullification - • This said a state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considers unconstitutional • Calhoun believed Congress had no right to pass a tariff that helped only 1 section of the country
Secession • Secession – withdrawal from the Union • South Carolina threatened to withdraw (or leave) the United States of America if the federal government tried to collect the tariffs. • WHY? S. Carolina believed the tariffs were too high.
Second Bank of the U.S. • Founded in 1816, the Second Bank of the U.S. was opposed by Jackson. He vetoed a bill set to renew the charter of the bank in 1832, and Congress could not get the needed votes to override it.
Interpret this cartoon Which of the following best describes the artist’s attitude about Jackson? • Jackson should be King. • Jackson is a strong leader. • Jackson has vetoed too many bills. • Jackson is behaving more like a king than an elected leader.
Election of 1836 • Jackson served 2 terms – was very popular • Jackson’s vice-president, Martin Van Buren became the 8th President of the U.S. • A few months after Van Buren took office a panic (fear) about the economy spread. • Panic of 1837 - a widespread fear about the state of the economy
Depression • People took their paper money to the banks and demand gold or silver. • The banks could not pay the people • The banks went bankrupt. • Depression – severe economic slump
President Review • George Washington • John Adams • Thomas Jefferson • James Madison • James Monroe • John Quincy Adams • Andrew Jackson • Martin Van Buren
Election of 1840 • Henry Clay and Daniel Webster argued that the government needed to help the economy • Van Buren disagreed – would not help • Many Americans blamed Martin Van Buren for the Panic • Clay, Webster, and Jackson opponents formed the Whig Party for the election of 1840
Election of 1840 • The Whig Party was named after a British Party & they did not support A. Jackson • The Whigs opposed all the power the chief executive (the President) has • The Whigs chose William Henry Harrison for President and John Tyler for Vice President • Harrison was a war hero
Harrison dies in office • William Henry Harrison became the 9th President of the United States • Died of pneumonia one month after being inaugurated • John Tyler, Harrison’s Vice President, took Harrison’s place after he died – becoming the 10th President of the United States.
Let’s Review… Presidents… • George Washington • John Adams • Thomas Jefferson • James Madison • James Monroe • John Quincy Adams • Andrew Jackson • Martin Van Buren • William Henry Harrison • John Tyler