The First World War: US History
Timeline: United States: 1914 – Hollywood, CA becomes the center of movie production in the US. 1915 – Alexander Graham Bell makes the first transcontinental telephone call. 1917 – The US Selective Service sets up the draft World: 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated. 1915 – Albert Einstein proposes his general theory of relativity. 1918 – The First World War ends.
Section 1: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Identify the long-term causes and the immediate circumstances that led to World War I. • 2. Summarize US public opinion about the war. • 3. Explain why the United States entered the war.
Section 1: World War I Begins: Main Idea: As World War I intensified, the United States was forced to abandon its neutrality. Why it Matters Now: The United States remains involved in European and world affairs. Key Terms: Nationalism Militarism Allies Central Powers No Man’s Land Key Terms / Names: Trench Warfare Archduke Franz Ferdinand Lusitania
Causes of the War: M.A.I.N. • Historians have traditionally cited four long-term causes of the First World War • MILITARISM– The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending • ALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe was divided into two armed camps (allies and central powers) • IMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nations • NATIONALISM– a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation
Causes of World War I: Militarism: European nations built large armies (especially Germany) Other nations tried to keep up (naval power) Alliance System: Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia (US would join later) Central Powers, consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy Imperialism: Nations around the world were overtaking weaker ones Provided the resources to build a larger empire Nationalism National pride led to rivalries and conflicts between nations
Which of the following causes of World War I do you think had the most impact on the world? • Militarism • Alliance System • Imperialism • Nationalism 25
Discussion Questions: Turn and Talk • 1. Is it right for America to intervene in foreign conflicts? • 2. When American lives are threatened, how should the government respond? • 3. Should America go to war to make the world “safe for democracy?”
The Spark: An Assassination: • Many countries were competing for access to the Ottoman Empire (present day Turkey) • Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea • Germany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman Empire • Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne was gunned down by an assassin while visiting the city of Sarajevo (Bosnia) Click the Pic!
Let’s See If You Can Follow This! • Step 1: Germany, obligated by treaty to support Austria-Hungary, declared war on Russia • Step 2: Germany then declared war on Russia’s ally – France. • Step 3: Germany then invaded Belgium, so Great Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. • The Great War had begun…
Turn and Talk: Discussion Questions • 1. If Franz Ferdinand was NOT assassinated, do you think something else would have eventually sparked the war? • 2. Do you think a nation should always honor being allies with another nation, even if they do not want to go to war?
War Was Changing: • WWI started with troops riding in on horseback. • By the end of the war there were planes, tanks, and machine guns • These planes and machine guns changed the way that was to waged. • They also led to huge casualties
New Weapons of War: • Machine Guns – Guns could now fire 600 rounds per minute • The Tank – New steel tanks ran on caterpillar treads (semi-bullet proof) • Airplanes–The British had a fleet of planes that could deliver bomb loads • Poison Gas – mustard gas was used to subdue the enemy - Link
The Hazards Of War: • These new technologies led to horrific injuries and hazards. • Examples: Inhalation of poison gas, polluted water, lice, rats, and constant bombardment. • The term “Shellshock” originated here – It is now called Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
The War Becomes A Stalemate: • Both allies and central powers forces dug in for a long fight - link • Trench warfare – hand dug channels that were created all across Europe • There were 3 types of trenches: front line Support reserve • Between enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire
The conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with the mud, flooding and disease associated with living in such a harsh environment.
Other Problems: • Trench Foot – Caused by standing in cold wet trenches for long periods of time without changing into dry socks/boots. • Toes would turn red/blue, then become numb and rot. • The only solution was to amputate the toes or in some cases the entire foot.
First Battle of the Somme: • During the First Battle of the Somme - the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day! • Final casualties for the First Battle of the Somme totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gained • This bloody trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of ground, lasted for three years Gas attacks were common features of trench life and often caused blindness and lung disease
Should America Join the Fight? • In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutrality • Many Americans felt close to the British because of a shared ancestry and language • Many immigrants saw their countries being ripped apart
The War Hits Home: • During the first two years of the war, America was selling the allied forces war materials and weapons • They used the sea to transport the goods • Germany warned that any ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk
The Lusitania Disaster: • The Lusitaniawas a British passenger liner • A German U-boat sank the Lusitania, killing all aboard (1200 people) including 128 American tourists • The Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunition • Americans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers
Steps Leading Towards War: • Woodrow Wilson campaigned on the idea of “neutrality” _________________________ 1. He tried to speak with German officials in hopes of peace (they ignored him) 2. 4 more American ships were sunk by U-boats 3. Germany was also trying to ally with Mexico and promised to give them back American lands in return for help (Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona) – The Zimmerman Note
America Declares War: • Wilson had reached his breaking point • “The world must be safe for democracy” • Congress passed the resolution a few days later • Do you agree with his decision?
Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Identify the long-term causes and the immediate circumstances that led to World War I. • 2. Describe the first two years of the war. • 3. Summarize US public opinion about the war. • 4. Explain why the United States entered the war.
Section 2: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Describe how the United States mobilized for war. • 2. Identify the new weapons and the medical problems faced in WW I. • 3. Describe the US offensives and the end of the war.
Section 2: American Power Tips the Balance Main Idea: The United States mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory. Why it Matters Now: During World War I, the United States military evolved into the powerful fighting force that it remains today. Key Terms: Selective Service Act American Expeditionary Force Conscientious Objector Armistice Key Names: General John J. Pershing Alvin York
American Power Tips The Balance: • America was not ready for war – only 200,000 men were in service when war was declared! • Selective Service Act (Draft) - required men to register with the government to be randomly selected to serve in the military About • 2 million American troops would reach Europe • Many of them were poorly trained • Some fought against the SSA – Conscientious objector
News Flash! • The United States of America Declares war on Iran! • Iran has been stockpiling nuclear weapons and has threatened several nations around the world including the USA. President Obama decides to re-institute the Selective Service Act. The draft is today!
Fighting “Over There” • General John J. Pershing led a group called the American Expeditionary Force.- this was a group of newly trained, rural farm boys that got called in to fight • American infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of their white belts / buttons (they polished with a white clay – “dough” Pershing wanted his troops to fight as “Americans” not as reserves for the British
American Troops Go On The Offensive: • Russia surrendered to the Germans in 1917 • the Germans were now within 50 miles of Paris • The Americans arrived and immediately played a major role in pushing the Germans back
The Collapse Of Germany: • Germany’s partner, Austria-Hungary, finally surrendered to the allies • Other revolts followed, and Germany was too exhausted to continue • So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month of 1918, Germany signed a truce ending the Great War
The Final Toll: • WW I was the bloodiest war in history up to that time. • Deaths numbered about 22 million. (more than half were civilians) • 20 million additional people were wounded. • The cost of the war was around $338 billion. • The US lost 48,000 men in battle and another 62,000 from disease.
World War I Discussion: • 1. If Pershing wouldn’t have insisted that American troops fight as their own unit, do you think the outcome of the war would have been the same? • 2. If Germany would have won the war, what do you think would have been the outcome? • 3. Do you feel that the allies could win the war without America’s help?
Did We Meet Our Objectives? • Can You: • 1. Describe how the United States mobilized for war. • 2. Summarize US battlefield successes. • 3. Identify the new weapons and the medical problems faced in WW I. • 4. Describe the US offensives and the end of the war.
Section 3: Objectives • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: • 1. Explain how business and government cooperated to promote the war. • 2. Describe the attacks on civil liberties that occurred.
Section Three: The War at Home Main Idea:World War I spurred social, political, and economic change in the United States. Why it Matter Now: Such changes increased government powers and expanded economic opportunities. Key Terms: War Industries Board Propaganda Espionage and Sedition Acts Great Migration Key Names: Bernard M. Baruch George Creel
The War At Home: • The entire U.S. economy was focused on the war effort • The shift from a consumer economy to war economy required a collaboration between business and government • In the process, the power of the U.S. government expanded • Congress gave President Wilson direct control over the economy
War Industries Board: • The War Industries Board encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques • Under the WIB, industrial production and wages increased 20% • Labor disputes were kept to a minimum because the affect they would have on production Should you be able to strike during war time?
A Culture of Change: • To conserve food, Wilson set up the Food Administration • The FA declared one day a week “meatless” another “sweetless” two days “wheatless” and two other days “porkless” • Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their yards • Farmers increased production by almost 30% by adding 40 million acres of farmland
Selling The War: • The U.S. had two major tasks • Raising money • Convincing the public to support the war • The U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war effort • The government raised about 1/3 of that through an income tax and “sin” taxes • The rest was raised through war bonds sold to the public
Propaganda: • To popularize the war, the government set up the nations first propaganda (encouraging people to support something using some type of advertising)-agency • George Creel led the agency and persuaded many of the nation’s artists to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons and sculptures to promote the war