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World War I

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  1. Mr. Laychuk 2013 World War I

  2. The First World War • When the First World War began in 1914, few believed it wouldn’t last very long. Many young people in Canada and elsewhere saw the war as an exciting chance for travel, adventure, and glory. Soldiers during World War I NEXT

  3. World War I Begins SECTION 1 SECTION 2 Battles and Technology The War at Home SECTION 3 Wilson Fights for Peace SECTION 4 The First World War NEXT

  4. Section 1 World War I Begins As World War I intensifies, Canada contributes over 600 000 men to the cause.

  5. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I Nationalism • Nationalism—devotion to one’s nation • Nationalism leads to competition, antagonism between nations • Various ethnic groups resent domination, want independence NEXT

  6. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I Imperialism Powerful countries practised imperialism by establishing colonies all over the world to create empires. They exploited the land and resources of the weaker nations they controlled. NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I • As the European powers scrambled for possessions in Africa, they needed to justify their actions. One such justification was the notion of the "white man's burden," which suggested that it was the duty of whites to assist Africans and other "inferior" peoples of the world by introducing them to the benefits of “civilization.” NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I Militarism • Nations glamorized their armed forces, and the size of their armies and navies became essential to national prestige. They embraced militarism and saw war as an acceptable way to resolve conflicts and achieve their goals. NEXT

  9. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I • Alliance System • These intense rivalries in Europe resulted in a rush to make or join alliances. By the early 1900s, all the Great Powers in Europe were in alliances with other countries, promising to support one another if they were attacked NEXT

  10. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I • Alliance System • Triple Entente or Allies—France, Britain, Russia • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire are Central Powers • Alliances give security; nations unwilling to tip balance of power NEXT

  11. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I Balance of Power: The situation, especially before World War I, in which the strong nations of Europe attempted to remain of equal strength militarily and in their alliances. NEXT

  12. SECTION 1 Causes of World War I An arms race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons, greater armies, or superior military technology. NEXT

  13. Section 2 Technology & Battles World War I was not inevitable, as many historians say. It could have been avoided, and it was a diplomatically botched negotiation.

  14. SECTION 2 Technology Trench Warfare: By the war's end, each side had dug at least 12,000 miles of trenches. NEXT

  15. SECTION 2 Technology

  16. SECTION 2 Technology

  17. SECTION 2 Canadian Highlander Technology

  18. The ‘Great Causes’

  19. SECTION 2 Sam Hughes Technology • Sam armed his men with the Canadian Ross rifle • The rifles jammed in the mud and overheated after quick firing • Hughes refused to replace them until it was to late • Many died for his folly

  20. SECTION 2 Technology Dead on the wire

  21. SECTION 2 Technology The Trenches would stretch from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland

  22. SECTION 2 Technology

  23. SECTION 2 Technology

  24. SECTION 2 Technology No Man’s land

  25. SECTION 2 Technology

  26. SECTION 2 Technology Trenchfoot: A condition which caused soldiers’ feet to swell and turn black. One of many unpleasant conditions which soldiers suffered from life in the wet trenches.

  27. SECTION 2 Technology

  28. SECTION 2 Technology

  29. SECTION 2 Technology Official figures declare about 1,176,500 non-fatal casualties and 85,000 fatalities directly caused by chemical weapon agents during the course of the war.

  30. SECTION 2 Gas at Ypres Technology • Modern warfare was born at Ypres,Belgium April 22,1915 • The German army released 5700 gas cylinders • The chlorine gas drifted across “no man’s land” • The French colonial troops broke and ran • The Canadians rushed in to close the gap • The advance was stopped

  31. SECTION 2 Technology

  32. SECTION 2 Technology

  33. SECTION 2 Technology

  34. SECTION 2 Technology • The Germans first used gas against the Russians on Jan 13, 1915 with little effect Even German dogs were outfitted with gas masks

  35. SECTION 2 Technology Blind British soldiers waiting for help. This image illustrates the idea of war of attrition.

  36. SECTION 2 Technology Tanks The fighting conditions of the Western Front prompted the British Army to begin research into a self-propelled vehicle which could cross trenches, crush barbed wire, and would be impervious to fire from machine-guns.

  37. SECTION 2 Technology

  38. SECTION 2 Technology

  39. SECTION 2 Technology Unlike semi-automatic firearms, which require one trigger pull per bullet fired, a machine gun is designed to fire bullets as long as the trigger is held down and ammunition is fed into the weapon.

  40. SECTION 2 Technology The first recorded powered flight was in 1903 when the Wright brothers flew their aircraft. In the autumn of 1914 a new recruit to the Royal Flying Corps had a greater chance of being killed during training than during combat.

  41. SECTION 2 Canada In The Air Technology • Canada produced more and better pilots than any other country • Of the top 27 aces 10 were Canadian • Billy Bishop Owen Sound Ontario “The Lone Wolf” 72 victories 3th for the war • Raymond CollishawNanaimo BC 60 victories 5th • Will Barker Dauphin Manitoba Canada’s most decorated war hero • Roy Brown a Canadian flyer who was credited with shooting down the “Red Baron”

  42. SECTION 2 Technology

  43. SECTION 2 Technology Death was a constant companion to those serving in the line, even when no raid or attack was launched or defended against.  In busy sectors the constant shellfire directed by the enemy brought random death. Shell Shock

  44. SECTION 2 Technology

  45. SECTION 2 Technology The Arms Race In May of 1915, U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. Though there was a great deal of outrage at the sinking of an "innocent" merchant ship at the time, historians now believe the Lusitania had 10 tons of weapons aboard, making it a valid target under international law.

  46. SECTION 2 Important People Emperor Franz Joseph

  47. SECTION 2 Important People Franz Ferdinand, Sophia and children

  48. SECTION 2 Important People George V

  49. SECTION 2 Important People William II

  50. SECTION 2 Important People Nicholas II and George V