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World War II. 1939-1945. World War II Study Guide. Identify at least 3 causes of World War II : (1) rise of Hitler/fascism ; (2) appeasement; (3) Japanese military aggression/nationalism in the Pacific

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World War II


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    1. World War II 1939-1945

    2. World War II Study Guide • Identify at least 3 causes of World War II: (1)rise of Hitler/fascism; (2) appeasement; (3) Japanese military aggression/nationalism in the Pacific • Explain the concept of Appeasement: the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace; Europeans “appeased” Hitler’s aggression prior to the start of WWII • Explain why Japan attacked the US at Pearl Harbor, forcing the US into the war: Japan wanted to dominate South East Asia. • What was the purpose of the Neutrality Act? The United States wanted to avoid international conflicts in Europe that might drag the nation into war. • Explain the concept of isolationism. • What separated WW I and WWII in regards to fighting on multiple fronts? • What was the Holocaust? • Why was Island Hopping a major key for the US victory in the pacific theater? • What was the importance of the Normandy Invasion? • What was the Manhattan Project and what was its’ importance in ending WWII?

    3. Sponge Activity • Identify three events or people related to World War II:

    4. Sponge Activity • Identify three events or people related to World War II: 1. Pearl Harbor 2. Holocaust 3. Atomic Bomb (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)

    5. WWII: The Rise of Dictators

    6. World War II • Fascism: an aggressive kind of nationalism; • Fascists believe that the nation was more important than the individual • Fascists believed a nation became great by expanding its territory and building up its military (very militaristic) • Fascism was fiercely anti-communist. • Fascism was anti-labor union, pro-private property and pro-middle class

    7. World War II • The Rise of Dictators • Mussolini and Fascism in Italy • Stalin and the USSR • Hitler and Nazism in Germany • Militarism in Japan

    8. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy • One of the first places in Europe where fascism took hold was Italy. • In 1919, Benito Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party. • Once in office, Mussolini worked to destroy democracy and establish a dictatorship.

    9. Hitler and Nazism in Germany • Adolf Hitler was a fervent anticommunist and an admirer of Mussolini. • Germany’s defeat in WWI left Germans with a deep hatred of the “Allies” and the peace terms.

    10. Hitler and Nazism in Germany • After WWI, Germany suffered economic depression and chaos. • Germans blamed the extremely harsh war reparations (war damages) they had to pay the Allies for much of their problems. • New political parties emerged during this period including the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or the NAZI Party.

    11. Hitler and Nazism in Germany • He referred to these Germans as the Aryans “master-race.” • He argued that Germans needed more Lebensraum or living space, and called for Germans to expand east into Poland and Russia. • He believed the Slavic people of Eastern Europe were an inferior people and should be enslaved. • He was especially anti-semetic-- he deeply hated the Jews, and blamed them for German’s defeat in WWI

    12. Hitler and Nazism in Germany • Hitler was arrested in November 1923 for trying to overthrow the democratically elected government in Germany. • In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kamph(My Struggle), his autobiography. • In the book, Hitler called for the unification of all Germans, especially blond, blue-eyed Germans. • By 1933, many Germans supported Hitler’s nationalism and politics. • Hitler was appointed as chancellor, or prime minister. • By 1934, he became dictator., and took the title the “fuhrer, or “leader.”

    13. Key Terms • Use your notes to write a short definition or sentence using the following key terms: • Pearl Harbor: • Benito Mussolini: • Fascism: • Nazis: • Adolf Hitler: • Holocaust:

    14. Stalin and the USSR • The Bolsheviks, a group of Communists led by Vladimir Lenin, seized power in the middle of WWI (1917). • They renamed the territories of Russia the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). • In 1926, Joseph Stalin became the new Soviet dictator. He began a massive effort to industrialize his country. • Stalin tolerated no opposition; his policies brought about the death of some 8 to 10 million peasants who resisted his policies.

    15. Stalin and the USSR • Socialism is the belief that business should be publicly owned and run by the government. • Communists believed that a political party led by them should use whatever means necessary to gain and hold power to created a socialists government. • The Bolsheviks, or Communists in Russia, established one-party rule over this territory, suppressing individual liberties and punishing opponents.

    16. Militarists Gain Control of Japan • Difficult economic times in Japan created political problems in Japan in the 1920’s. • Japan had to import many of the resources it needed for its economy. • Japan did not earn enough money from its exports for a strong economy. • The Great Depression hit Japan especially hard as tariffs limited its ability to export its industrial products. Unemployment grew worse over the 1930s. • Emperor Hirohito

    17. Militarists Gain Control of Japan • Japanese military leaders led by Hideki Tojo and others believed the only way for Japan to get the resources it needed for a stronger economy was to seize territory. • The resource-rich province of Manchuria in northern China was a perfect place to conquer. • In 1931, the Japanese army invaded Manchuria. The military assassinated the Japanese prime minister when he tried to end the conflict and took control of the government. • The new government the military formed supported a nationalist policy of expanding the Japanese empire , and appointed military officers to head the Japanese government.

    18. Sponge Activity: Identify the country each of these individuals were from: • PersonCountryPolitics • Adolf Hitler _________ _______ • Benito Mussolini _________ _______ • Joseph Stalin: _________ _______ • Hirohito: _________ _______

    19. Identify the country each of these individuals were from: • PersonCountryPolitics • Adolf Hitler Germany Fascism • Benito Mussolini Italy Fascism • Joseph Stalin: USSR(Russia) Communism • Hirohito: Japan Fascism

    20. Sponge Activity • Identify three causes of World War II andexplain why they occurred. • 1. • 2. • 3.

    21. Sponge Activity • Identify three countries the United States fought in World War II?

    22. America and Neutrality • The rise of new dictators and militarism after WWI discouraged many Americans. • Americans were preoccupied with the Great Depression • Americans supported isolationism—the belief that the United States should avoid international commitments that might drag the nation into war.

    23. American Turns to Neutrality • Nye Committee: in 1934, a congressional committee uncovered how arms factories had amassed huge profits during WWI. • Many Americans believed that they were tricked into WWI by businesses and arms manufacturers. • Neutrality Act of 1935: a law that made in illegal to sell arms to any country at war. • Spanish Civil War: began in 1936; a rebellion began in Spain following the election of a coalition of Republican, Socialist, and Communists; the rebellion led by General Francisco Franco and Spanish Fascists, the army, landowners, etc.

    24. America Turns to Neutrality • Axis Powers • After the Spanish Civil War began in 1936, Hitler and Mussolini signed an agreement on cooperation. • Japan later aligned itself with Germany and Italy. • Together, they became known as the Axis Powers

    25. Roosevelt and Internationalism • Internationalism: the idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war. • Roosevelt supported internationalism and warned that the nation should not allow “lawlessness” infect the world.

    26. World War II Begins • By 1940, Hitler was bent on conquest and the German army had been rebuilt. • European leaders had not tried to stop Hitler when he was much weaker. • Appeasement: the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace • Most Europeans refused to stop him earlier because: • Memories of WWI • Many believed German should be allowed to control German-speaking regions of Europe • They believed Hitler would stop once they gained more territory.

    27. Appeasement and Hitler’s Aggression • Hitler takes Austria (March, 1938) • Munich Conference (September 29, 1938); Czechoslovakia: • After the Munich Conference, Hitler turned his attention to Poland. Hitler demanded return of Danzig region of Poland. France and England announced they would defend Poland • August 23, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact • September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland. • September 3, 1939, Britain and France declare war on Germany, WWII begins

    28. U.S. Entry into War II

    29. Key Terms • Lend-Lease Act: December, 1940 act by which the US was able to lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the US; • Atlantic Charter: a charter written following a meeting of Winston Churchill and FDR in August, 1941; this charter committed the US and England to a postwar world of democracy, non-aggression, free trade, economic advancment, and freedom of the seas. • Pearl Harbor: site of a devastating surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. Pacific Fleet in December 7th, 1941; 21 US ships sank or damaged; 188 airplanes destroyed; aand 2,403 Americans killed; the next day, the US declared war on Japan; days later, German and Italy declared war on the USA

    30. FDR and the “Four Freedoms” • Following his reelection in 1940, F.D. Roosevelt called on the US to support England’s fight against Hitler • In 1941, FDR listed “Four Freedoms” upon with the US stood—a rallying cry for the US: • Freedom of speech • Freedom of worship • Freedom from want • Freedom from fear

    31. Lend-Lease Act • By December 1940, Great Britain had run out of money to wage war against Germany. • In 1940, the US began to lend or lease arms to any country considered to be “vital to the defense of the US.” • England agreed to return or pay rent for the arms after WWII. • Under this program, the US sent over $50 billion in weapons, vehicles and supplies to the Allies.

    32. Atlantic Charter • In August 1941 F.D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (GB) met face-to-face on board American British warships anchored near Newfoundland. • Agreed on text of the Atlantic Charter • Committed leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement and freedom of the seas

    33. U.S. Entry into War II

    34. Key Terms • Lend-Lease Act: December, 1940 act by which the US was able to lend or lease arms to any country considered “vital to the defense of the US; • Atlantic Charter: a charter written following a meeting of Winston Churchill and FDR in August, 1941; this charter committed the US and England to a postwar world of democracy, non-aggression, free trade, economic advancment, and freedom of the seas. • Pearl Harbor: site of a devastating surprise attack by Japan on the U.S. Pacific Fleet in December 7th, 1941; 21 US ships sank or damaged; 188 airplanes destroyed; aand 2,403 Americans killed; the next day, the US declared war on Japan; days later, German and Italy declared war on the USA

    35. FDR and the “Four Freedoms” • Following his reelection in 1940, F.D. Roosevelt called on the US to support England’s fight against Hitler • In 1941, FDR listed “Four Freedoms” upon with the US stood—a rallying cry for the US: • Freedom of speech • Freedom of worship • Freedom from want • Freedom from fear

    36. Lend-Lease Act • By December 1940, Great Britain had run out of money to wage war against Germany. • In 1940, the US began to lend or lease arms to any country considered to be “vital to the defense of the US.” • England agreed to return or pay rent for the arms after WWII. • Under this program, the US sent over $50 billion in weapons, vehicles and supplies to the Allies.

    37. Atlantic Charter • In August 1941 F.D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill (GB) met face-to-face on board American British warships anchored near Newfoundland. • Agreed on text of the Atlantic Charter • Committed leaders to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, economic advancement and freedom of the seas

    38. Japan Attacks the US • The Japanese attack on the US finally drew the US into World War 2. • Japan wanted to resources for its industry. • The Japanese military had seized the resource-rich province of Manchuria in northern China in 1931. • Japan invaded China in 1937.

    39. Japan Attacks the US • Roosevelt put pressure on Japan in 1939 and 1940 to keep Japan from attacking British territory in South East Asia • Export Control Act (1940): restricted sale of strategic materials to Japan (airplane fuel, scrap metal). • Japan joined the Axis shortly after • Japan attacked southern Indochina in 1941 and threatened English and French colonies.

    40. Japan Attacks the US • Because Japan had decided to attack British and French regions of southeast Asia, they needed to destroy the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. • On November 26, 1941, six Japanese aircraft carriers, two battleships and several warships set sail for Hawaii. • Surprise attack on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor occurred on December 7th, 1941.

    41. Japan Attacks the US • The Japanese attack on the US finally drew the US into World War 2. • Roosevelt put pressure on Japan in 1939 and 1940 to keep Japan from attacking British territory in South East Asia • Export Control Act (1940) • Japan attacked Indochina in 1941

    42. Chapter 19: Key Terms • Appeasement: the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace • Blitzkrieg: lightning war; German used large numbers of massed tanks to break through and rapidly encircle enemy positions; waves of aircraft supported the tanks • Dunkirk: small town in northern France where British and French troops were rescued from Hitler’s army in June, 1940 • Luftwaffe: German air force • Battle of Britain: air battle between England’s Royal Air Force and Germany’s Luftwaffe in Fall, 1940;

    43. Key Terms (Holocaust) • Holocaust: name given to the mass slaughter to the Jews and other groups by Hitler and the NAZIs during WW2 • Nuremberg Laws: German laws passed in September, 1935 that took citizenship away from Jewish Germans; banned marriage between Germans and Jews; prohibited Jews from voting or holding political office; also Jews were restricted from certain occupations • Kristallnacht: “night of broken glass”; anti-Jewish violence and riots that swept through Germany and Austria in November, 1938 • Concentration camps: detention centers where Jews worked as slaves until they died from exhaustion, disease, or malnutrition • Extermination camps: next to the concentration camps; camps where Jews were executed in massive gas chambers • Auschwitz: massive extermination camp, housed about 100,000 people in 300 prison baracks; 1.6 million Jews, Gypsies, Soviet prisoners of war and other people died at this camp.