Origin: Old English Angles, Saxons, and Jutes Many German dialects combined in 449 AD Angle’s land= England Angle-ish= English Therefore, Anglo Saxon =Old English
3 Periods of Development Old English 449-1066 Middle English 1066-Renaissance Modern English 1485-present
Qualities of Old English: It’s a different language, which people today have to study as a foreign language. It has a runic alphabet; individual characters are called runes. • It is highly inflected.
Definition:The grammatical relationships are indicated by word form, NOT by the order of the words in the sentence. What is inflection? Examples: Older languages like Latin have many genders & cases; the word form changes to indicate a different use in a sentence (in other words, a different part of speech.) credo. credere, credid, creditum This is just one word, with several forms, that means belief.
Singular Plural Nominative se dæg tha dagas Accusative thone dæg tha dagas Genitive thæs dæges thara daga Dative thæm dæge thæm dagum Instrumental thy dæge thæm dagum Old English Noun Declension
The king bows to the bishop. Modern English is not inflected: The bishop bows to the king. The boy hit the ball. The ball hit the boy. In modern,uninflected languages word order is essential to meaning. Can anyone think of examples of leftover inflection in modern English?
child, children • mouse, mice • man, men • goose, geese, • etc. What else does Modern English have in common with Old English? • Our Basic Vocabulary: • Simple, common nouns • Irregular verbs (Be verbs) • Conjunctions & Prepositions
Tiu, god of war And last but not least. . . Tuesday Tiu’s day Woden, father of the gods Wednesday Woden’s day Thor, god of thunder Thursday Thor’s day Fria, mother of the gods Friday Fria’s day