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OLD ENGLISH VOCABULARY. GORDILLO, Eugenia Guadalupe. OLD ENGLISH VOCABULARY. The vocabulary was almost purely Teutonic. About the 85% of the words are no longer in use but those that survived are basic elements of the English Vocabulary.
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OLD ENGLISH VOCABULARY GORDILLO, Eugenia Guadalupe
OLD ENGLISH VOCABULARY • The vocabulary was almost purely Teutonic. About the 85% of the words are no longer in use but those that survived are basic elements of the English Vocabulary. • To enlarge its vocabulary OE depended mainly on its own sources. From Proto-Indo- European, the Germanic languages had formed new words, especially by the use of preffixes and suffixes. blōdig bloody frēondleas friendless
Suffixes were also used to form Abstract Nouns. ipa ( suffix) added to some words like ful+ipa impurity There were a large number of prefixes, many of which could be added to verbs. -ge sceran “to cut” gesceran “to cut right through” ridan “to ride” geridan “to ride up to, conquer” -for hergian “to harry” forhergian “destroy by hurrying” bærnan “to burn” forbærnan “ destroy by burning”
Advers were commonly formed from adjectives by means of suffixes such as –e and –lice fæst(firm) was formed fæste (firmly) blind was formed blindlice (blindly) OE also formed new words by compunding. A compound word is formed by the joining of two or more free morphemes. literature bōccræft (book-skill) arithmetic rimcræft (number-skill) grammar stæcræft (letter-skill) astronomy tungolcræft (star-skill)
OE did however borrow a small number of words from other languages, especially for the concepts and institutions of Christianity. Cyrce “church” is derived from Greek . Most of the words connected with Christianity date from after the Conversion and are from Latin. They include: apostol “apostle” biscop “bishop” munuc “monk” As well as words for abbot, nun, pilgrim, pope and school.
Sometimes existing words were simply transferred to Christian use. Easter Holy Hell
SPECIMENS OF OLD ENGLISH • ge (plural) pu (singular) today we use “you” in both cases. use of ye and you they are the same as he and him. one was nominative and the other accusative. The words who and which (hwa, hwilc) but were indefinite or interrogative pronouns, not relatives. For the relative function OE used the participle “pe” or the pronoun “se”