IF CLAUSES(ŞART CÜMLELERİ) AYÇA ATEŞ İÖP-1 1090610148
IF CLAUSES • TYPE 1 • TYPE 2 • TYPE 3 • MIXED TYPE
TYPE 1:True in the present or future • İçimde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte, belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde olabilecek olayları type 1- if clause ile ifade ederiz. If it doesn’t raintomorrow, we will go on a picnic.
“If” in bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylem gelecek zamana ait olduğunda da, Future Tense yerine Simple Present kullanılır. Perhaps she will come tomorrow. Then we will study together. If she comes tomorrow, we will study together.
1. Temel cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar • “Will”in varyasyonları (will be doing, will have done, will have been doing) She applied to a computer firm last week, and she may get the job. If she is hired, she will be working there
May / Might / Could (Possibility) If the weather continues like this, we may/might/could cancel the garden party at the weekend. ( Perhaps we will cancel the party.)
May (permission) and can (permission or ability) If you finish the test earlier than expected, you may/can leave the classroom. (permission)
Must, have to, have got to, (necessity); should, ought to, had better (advisability) and any expression of command, request, suggestion or advice (Necessity) If you don’t want to be late for the beginning of the film,you have to/must/have gotto leave at once.
Temel cümlede simple present kullanımı çok yaygın değildir. Ancak alışkanlıklarımızdan belli bir koşul yerine geldiğinde genelde yaptığımız eylemlerden ve doğa olaylarından söz ediyorsak , temel cümlede simple present kullanabiliriz. If you boil water, it evaporates. (“will evaporate”de kullanılabilir.)
2. “IF” li cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar • Can (permission or ability) If you can pass the university exam, you will be one of the lucky ones. (ability) • Have to (necessity) She has an exam tomorrow, so she may have to prepare for it tonight. If she has tostudy tonight, she won’t be able to come to the cinema with us
Eğer konuşma sırasında devam etmekte olan bir eylemi ifade ediyorsak.”if” clause’da Present Continuous Tense kullanabiliriz. If you are looking for your slippers, they are under the cupboard.
“If” li cümlede Present Perfect Tense’i, “Eğer işini bitirdiysen, tamamladıysan” gibi anlamlar vermek için kullanabiliriz. If you have finished reading that book, may l borrow it for a while?
Should “If”li cümlede “should” kullanmamız, olasılığın biraz daha az olduğunu vurgular. If you need any help, l can help you.
TYPE 2: Untrue (Contrary to Fact) in the Present or Future • Type 2-if clause, içinde bulunduğumuz anda ya da gelecekte olacak bir olayın tersini düşünüp koşul ileri sürmek ve bu hayali koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Truth: l don’t have enough money now, so l can’t lend you any to buy that shirt.(present) Conditional:If l had enough money now, l would lend you some money to buy that shirt.
1. Temel cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar • Would and Would be doing: l’ m not rich, so l can’t travel around the world If l were rich, l would travel around the world.
Could, would be able to, might and would have to l don’t know any French , so l can’t help you with your French assingment now. If l knew some French, l could help you with your French assingment now.(meaning: present)
2.”If”li cümlede kullanabileceğimiz yapılar • Past form of “be” (was /were) If it weren’t wet now, we could go out for a walk.(meaning: present) If they weren’t out of town next week, we could /would visit them
Anlam present ya da future olduğunda, if clause da Past Tense kullanılır. They won’t come to our party tomorrow,and l am disappointed. If they came to our party tomorrow, l would be happy. (meaning: future)
Eğer devam etmekte olan bir eylemin (am/is/are doing) tersini düşünerek koşul cümlesi oluşturuyorsak if clause’da “was/were doing” kullanabiliriz. I am studying now, so I can’t help you. If I weren’t studying now, I could help you.
Could and had to I can’t leave work early today, so I can’t meet you to go to the cinema. If I could leave work early today, we could go to the cinema together.
Type 2-If clause’ da “should” kullanmak, aynı type 1’de olduğu gibi, olasılığın daha az olduğunu vurgular. If I should see him tomorrow, I would give him your message.
TYPE 3: Untrue (contrary to fact) In The Past • Type 3-if clauses, geçmişte olmuş olayların tersini düşünüp, bir koşul ileri sürmek ve bu koşulun sonucunu ifade etmek için kullanılır. Truth:She didn’t study hard enough, so she didn’t pass the test. Conditional: If she had studied hard enough, she would have passed the test.
1.Temel Cümlede Kullanabileceğimiz yapılar • Would have done and would have been doing She didn’t work regularly, so she didn’t finish the project in time. If she had worked regularly, she would have finished the project in time
Would have had to and would have been able to I ran to the bus stop, so I was able to catch the bus. If I hadn’t run to the bus stop, I wouldn’thave been able to catch the bus.
Might have done (possibility) and could have done (permission and ability) He had the necessary qualifications, so he got the job. If he hadn’t had the necessary qualifications, he might not got the job.
2.”If” li Cümlede Kullanabileceğimiz Yapılar • Past Perfect Tense There weren’t enough people, so we had to cancel the meeting. If there had been enough people, we would have held the meeting.
Past Perfect Continuous She was sleeping when I got home, so I couldn’t give her the good news right away. If she hadn’t been sleeping when I got home, I could have given her the good news right away.
Had had to and had been able to I had to work on my project last night, so I missed my favourite programme on TV. If I hadn’t had to work on my project last night, I could have watched my favourite programme on TV.
MIXED TYPE • “Mixed Type” if clause, temel cümledeki tense ile koşul cümlesindeki tense’in farklı type’lara ait olduğunu ifade eder. Örneğin, koşul cümlesinde type 3 kullanılırken, temel cümlede type 2 kullanabiliriz. Ya da tersi. Ancak burada, eylem if clause dışında gerçek tense’lerinin ne olduğuna çok dikkat etmeliyiz.
If I hadn’t spent all my money foolishly, I wouldn’t be broke now. • If he weren’t a rude man, he wouldn’t have rebuked his wife in front of others. • If he had studied hard enough for the test, he wouldn’t be sorry about his score now. • If we hadn’t missed the bus because of you, we wouldn’t be waiting here in the rain now.
UNLESS • Unless olumsuz bir anlama sahip olduğu için bağlı bulunduğu cümle genellikle olumlu yapıdadır. Bu nedenle unless bazı cümlelerde “if….not” yerine kullanılabilir. You can’t pass the exam if you don’t study. You can’t pass the exam unless you study.
THE END PREPARED BY AYÇA ATEŞ