◎ Clauses → Cats are cute pets. → Serious problems will happen if you neglect this. ◎ Not Clauses → before brushing his teeth. → to catch the bus. Sentences and clauses Clauses are the building blocks of sentences. A clause contains ( at least ) a subject and a verb.
Be alert to the fact that there are two kinds of clauses：independent and dependent clauses. An independent clause contains a subject and a verb, expressing a complete thought. A dependent clause, beginning with subordinating conjunctions such as if, when and because, does not express a complete thought. It cannot stand as a sentence by itself. Ex： 1. I love my grandmother for her kindness. 2. when he was young. 3. after he picked up the ticket.
simple, compound, complex, compound-complex. A sentence is a group of words that express a complete thought. There are four kind of sentences in English： simple, compound, complex, compound-complex. Simple：A simple sentence contains a subject-verb combination. Ex： 1. My brother went camping. 2. John and Mary are fond of swimming. 3. My father was exhausted and went to bed early. 4. John and Mary speak and write Chinese well. 5. I got up early, brushed my teeth, ate my breakfast and went out. 6. I like fruits but hate cheese.
Compound ：A compound sentence connects two or more simple sentences ( independent clauses ) with a comma and a coordinating conjunction. It can be formed as follows：Ic, □ ic. Ex： 1. He is kind, and he is devoted to helping the poor. 2. I studied hard, so I got excellent grades. 3. He didn’t go to school, for he was sick. 4. He was sick, yet he still went to school. 5. I like fruits, but I hate cheese.
Ic, for and nor but or yet so 對等連接詞：f a n b o y s ic.
Complex：三大子句(名詞、形容詞、副詞)一定是complex A complex sentence contains one independent and one dependent clause. A complex sentence can be formed as follows：Icdc.=Dc, ic. In a complex sentence, one idea is generally more important than the other. We put the more important idea in the independent clause. Ex：因為他生病了,他沒上學. ◎ Simple：S + V →He was sick and didn't go to school. →Because of his sickness (being sick), he didn't go to school. ◎ Compound：Ic, 7 ic. →He was sick, so he didn't go to school. →He didn't go to school, for he was sick. ◎ Complex：Icdc.=Dc, ic. →Because he was sick, he didn't go to school. →When he was sick, he didn't go to school. →As he was sick, he didn't go to school. →Since he was sick, he didn't go to school.
Ex：因為他很自私,所以我討厭他. ◎ Simple：S + V →Because of his selfish, I hate him. ◎ Compound：Ic, 7 ic. →He is selfish, so I hate him. →I hate him, for he is selfish. ◎ Complex：Icdc.=Dc, ic. →I hate him because he is selfish. →Because he selfish, I hate him.
Exercise：Wright Simple, Compound, Complex, or Fragment in the blank. _____ 1. Before pitching your tent, prepare the meal for everybody. _____2. Before pitching your tent, take the time to prepare the area that will be under the tent. _____3. Peter is not the man to do anything by halves. _____ 4. Peter is not the man who will do anything by halves. _____ 5. He tied his shoelaces, put on his coat, and went out. _____ 6.Never will I marry the man. _____7.No sooner had he reached the park than it began to rain.
_____8. Despite winning the game, Peter was not happy. _____ 9. Even though Peter won the game, he was not happy. _____ 10. The pollution and toxic fumes from the cars. _____ 11.The man named "Prodigy" by every man. _____ 12.The most famous president that I have ever interviewed. _____ 13.After the lecture ends, they went to the cinema to watch the movie. _____ 14.She puts aside her money every day so that she can go abroad. _____ 15.Say when.
Transition 轉折語 ◎ Ic; transition, ic. = Ic. Transition, ic It is raining heavily; he can’t go mountain climbing. = It is raining heavily; therefore, he can’t go mountain climbing. =It is raining heavily. Therefore, he can’t go mountain climbing.
Transition 轉折語 因此,於是 therefore, consequently, thus, as a result, as a consequence, hence, accordingly 除此之外 besides, in addition, additionally 然而,僅管 however, nevertheless
Writing Handout 1 • Vocabulary
I have ____________ to go abroad for advanced study After the class, we got together to ___________ the homecoming party. The students had a long ___________ about the homecoming party. It was scorching, so he made a __________ to go to the beach.
B Unscramble these words to make sentences. Discard one word. The first one is done for you. 1. country can things many I about describe my the I can describe many things about my country. 2. the to difficult make decide was very decision →___________________________________________________ 3. it about long time they a for discussed →___________________________________________________ 4. immigration discussion discussed a family the about long had →___________________________________________________ 5. passport get decision has to he decide a →___________________________________________________
Fill in the blanks with the words from the vocabulary list. Be sure the verbs are in the correct tense. a. For the costume party, the only ________ is to be over 18. b. He _________ in school in order to learn English. c. Success __________ hard work. d. Our school has a very large ________
1. My boss gave me a raise because he was ____________ with my work. 2. The workers were on a strike because they were ____________ with the ill treatment. 3. I am ____________ to meet you. 4. ____________ at her son’s naughty behavior, the mother yelled at him.
Unscramble these words to make sentences. • 1. in school enroll the United States in can free for children all • →_____________________________________________________ • 2. require the seedlings young intensive care • →_____________________________________________________ • 3. he test pleased passed the he because was • →_____________________________________________________ • 4. dissatisfied schedule her she class with was • →_____________________________________________________ • 5. teacher students because displeased late were the arrived the • →_____________________________________________________ • 6. work director her satisfied was with the • →_____________________________________________________
A Difficult Decision • Leaving my country was the most difficult decision of my life. Although I had an uncle • in New York. I had to leave the rest of my family in Taiwan, and I didn’t know when I • would see them again. Of course, being able to immigrate to the United States was • a great chance for me, but I also knew that living alone is unbearable. I knew that life • would be difficult and lonely. I and my family discussed my plans. We discussed our • ideas for several months and finally decided I should go. Nobody could understand • my suffering, and this was the most difficult decision that I made.
On the morning I left, it was raining heavily, and I woke up with tears in my eyes. My • parents were so old that I was afraid to leave them. I was solicitous about their health. • I worried that they would become sick or die. I also worried that I would not be • successful in my new life and would disappoint my family. I really didn’t want my • family to see me crying. When I kissed my parents at the airport, I restrained myself • from crying. Although my heart was breaking, I had a big smile on my face. My • mother was the last to say goodbye. She said, “you may live far away, but Taiwan is • always your precious hometown.”
Writing Exercise 2 • Dear Henry: • It’s hard to believe that you are in your final year of high school. How time • elapses! I remember when you were born. I’m very pleased because you’ve grown • up to be a fine young man. At this time in your life, you must make many important • decisions, and I am convinced that you probably feel confused. If you make a wrong • decision and go astray, you may pay for your mistake the rest of your life. Now, you • must put a premium on education because it is a first priority. It is the key to a • successful future. Getting a good job requires having a good educational background.
When I first came to the United States, I didn’t have a high-school diploma. I was • lucky. I had the opportunity to enroll in an adult school to learn English and finish high • school. After I had got the high-school diploma, I had more opportunities for • advancement. The face that a good job requires a good education is hardly news. • Nowadays, a college education is the basic requirement for a good job. • You are an intelligent young man, so you will by all means make the right • choices. Since good universities are getting more and more expensive, I will support • you financially. Whatever you choose, I hope you will not be dissatisfied. I wish you • all the best. • Please write as soon as possible. • Love, • Grandpa
Connecting Words although and because
Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list. • 1. He enjoyed his classes. They were difficult and occult. →_____________________________________________________ • 2. He is serious in appearance. He is kind at heart. →_____________________________________________________ • 3. She enrolled in school. She desired to improve her writing ability. →_____________________________________________________ • 4. Last week Ted saw the school counselor. He advised him to enroll in a literature class. →_____________________________________________________ • 5. I want to apply for a full-time job soon. I have to graduate first. →_____________________________________________________
Connecting Words although because after before
Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list • 1. He wanted to get a new job. His boss was demanding and stingy. →_____________________________________________________ • 2. He pulled himself up by his own bootstraps. He led a prosperous life. →_____________________________________________________ • 3. She mailed the letter. She typed the letter. →_____________________________________________________ • 4. She dressed carefully. She went to the interview. →_____________________________________________________ • 5.They worked in the same office. They hardly got along well with each other. →_____________________________________________________
Connecting Words because if but so
Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list. • 1. He went bankrupt. He was indulged in gambling. →_____________________________________________________ • 2. They will take a honeymoon. They will get married. →_____________________________________________________ • 3. They will elope. Their parents will disapprove of their marriage. →_____________________________________________________ • 4. His father was seriously ill. He spared for no cost at the apothecaries • in buying drugs that might help with the illness. →_____________________________________________________ • 5. He is an imbecile. She still marries him. →_____________________________________________________
Connecting Words although even though sobecause
Combine the two sentences to make one longer sentence. Use a connecting word from the vocabulary list • 1.I like hot water. I moved to Arizona. →_____________________________________________________ • 2.I like hot water. I live in Alaska. →_____________________________________________________ • 3.He hates spicy food. He will eat in a Mexican restaurant tonight. →_____________________________________________________ • 4.He loves spice food. He eats in a Mexican restaurant every night. →_____________________________________________________ • 5.Ted was at enmity with Helen. Ted never met Helen without staring • at her. →_____________________________________________________
Connecting Words Here are some words that indicate a “reason.”
1. We called off the picnic because the weather was terrible. • →Because of___________________________________ • 2. He lost an important customer because he made a serious • mistake. • →As a consequence of____________________________ • 3. The flight was delayed because there was heavy fog. • →Due to_______________________________________ • 4. Since the emperor was circumspect and intelligent, he had • a victorious campaign against the Romans. • →As a result of__________________________________
Connecting Words Here are some words that indicate a “result.”
1. They canceled the picnic because it was raining. • (and that’s why) • →____________________________________________ • 2. Tamora has sworn to avenge the death of her son because • titus murders her son. (For this reason) • →____________________________________________ • 3. Helen was seriously ill this morning, and she called in sick. • (As a result) • →____________________________________________ • 4. He felt remorse for his past because he perpetrated the crime • of homicide. (therefore) • →____________________________________________ • 5. It was raining heavily, and I got soaking wet. (so) • →____________________________________________
6. I went straight to bed after I got home because the trip was • exhausting. (thus) • →______________________________________________ • 7. Michael was diligent and assiduous, and he pulled himself up • by his own bootstraps. (For this reason) • →______________________________________________ • 8. Tim was tired out, and he fell asleep right away. (therefore) • →______________________________________________ • 9. She is unwilling to eat dessert because she is on a diet. (thus) • →______________________________________________ • 10.We should drive high-mileage automobiles that use less fuel. • The price of gasoline is increasing. (as a consequence) • →______________________________________________
※ 探討原因(cause)的段落時，可用以下句型: • ◎ There are several causes of _______. • ◎ There are several reasons for _______. • ◎ There are several main reasons why ______. • ◎ Several main reasons can explain why ______. • ◎ 人do/does 事for several reasons. EX: People learn English for three main reasons. There are several main reasons for people’s learning English. People like to make on-line purchases for several reasons.
※ 探討原因(effect )的段落時，可用以下句型: • ◎ _______ has had several important effects on ________. • ◎ _______ has had important effects on _________. • ◎ _______ has had some positive / negative effects on _____. EX: Deforestation has had some negative effects on the environment. Global warming has had several important effects on the environment. Regulations about hairstyles has had some positive effects on students.
Surfing the Internet • Nowadays, more and more people enjoy spending their time surfing the Internet for • different purposes. Three possible reasons can explain why people do this. The first • reason some people surf the net is that they really don’t know what to do in their free • time. They feel bored most of the time; therefore, they regard surfing the net as a • pastime. The joy of playing online games is available. The second reason people surf • the net is to get some information for their studies. The third reason for surfing the • Interment is that people can make friends with those from a distance. Due to the • modern technology, people can easily keep in touch with their friends. Undoubtedly, • people surf the net to meet different needs. As a result, it’s really hard to imagine a • world without the Internet. If the Internet hadn’t been invented several decades ago, • people would never have had the chance to lead a convenient life.
Comparison ＆ Contrast 比較與對比 To compare means to discuss how two people, places, or things are similar: Both teachers and students need to spend a lot of time preparing for classes. To contrast means to discuss how two people, places, or things are different: One advantage of a bicycle over a car is that a bicycle is good for environmental protection.
※ Here are some words that can indicate “difference” and “contrast:”
Exercise: Fill in the blanks by using the correct words. • 1. My wife is fond of playing volleyball. ____ _____ ______ _______, • I enjoy going mountain-climbing. • 2.__________ Mary is very smart and diligent, her twin sister, Helen, has • a completely different personality. • 3. I enjoy horror films, __________ my wife loves action / adventure movies. • 4. I and my brother have one thing __________ __________: we both like • French Escargot. • 5. The air in the mountain is fresh and invigorating. _______ ________, the • air in the city is polluted and dirty.
6. My sister is shy and introvert.__________, I am outgoing and talkative. • 7. Our marriage custom is __________ __________ that in Japan. • You have to consult some people in advance. • 8. Many tourists like backpacking traveling;__________, there are also • many tourists enjoy joining tours. • 9. Taipei is a modern city in Taiwan, and __________ is Kaohsiung. • 10. Many people can’t enjoy sound sleep, and _________ ________ I. • 11.__________ his shortcomings, I still like her.
My Two Idols Most people have their own idols, and so do I. My idols are neither superstars nor historic heroes. They are two of my relatives: John, my nephew, and Ted, my granduncle. Although John is only twelve years old, he has already made up his mind to be a successful pianist in the future. He makes it a rule to practice playing the piano for six hours every day. He is a man of high resolve, and everyone is impressed with his indomitable spirit. There is an old saying which goes well— “It’s dogged that does it.” I believe his dream will come true. On the other hand, Ted is not as naturally talented as John. Learning new things is hard for him. However, he is not a quitter. At the age of fifty, Ted started to learn English. It has been three years, but no one understands his English when he speaks it. My granduncle is a man who cannot countenance defeat. Despite his slow progress, he insists on practicing English for six hours every day. He is convinced that he will become an English expert. John and Ted are different in age, but they have one thing in common. They are diligent, and they never give in to difficulties. They become my idols because of their assiduous attitude.
Definition Paragraph定義性文章 Definition composition aims to clarify some confusing or indefinite terms, thereby helping readers have a concrete idea about something. Here are some tips for writing a good definition composition: • 1. Explain something in a concrete way or define it clearly. • 2. Provide readers with details or examples to visualize a concrete picture. • 3. Avoid giving misleading or confusing definitions. • 4. Resort to adjective clauses to modify a new term so that it becomes clear.
EX: Borsch is a kind of thick soup. → (not clear) Borsch is a kind of thick soup that is made with a lot of beets and sour cream. → (clear) EX: .A fortune cookie is a biscuit. → (not clear) EX: .A fortune cookie is a biscuit which contains a piece of paper that says what is supposed to happen in the future. → (clear) ※ Marriage is a union. The union binds two families closely together. →
Exercise: Combine the sentences by using adjective clauses. 1.Low-fat milk is a kind of milk. It contains a little fat. → ________________________________________________ 2. Fine-weather friends are false friends . They may desert you when you are in trouble. → ________________________________________________ 3. A typhoon is a violent storm. The storm has very strong wind. → ________________________________________________ 4. Tourists are the kind of people. They travel for pleasure. → ________________________________________________
5.Dragon is a large imaginary animal. It stands for favorable auspice in China. → ________________________________________________ 6.A model student is the assiduous student. He will preview the lessons before class. → ________________________________________________ 7. Anger is the strong feeling. It makes you feel unhappy. → ________________________________________________ 8. Sushi is a Japanese dish. It contains cold cooked rice and raw fish. → ________________________________________________ 9. Recipes are instructions. They will help people prepare palatable foods. → ________________________________________________