Adjective Clauses Chapter 13 - Grammar
adjective clause • An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It is possible to combine the following two sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause: Example: • The children are going to the beach. • Theyare on the bus. The children who are on the busare going to the beach. | adjective clause |
Adjectives vs. Adjective Clause Adjectives: Example: The tall man played basketball. • Describes a noun (before a noun) • Usually one word Adjective Clause: • Describes a noun (after a noun) • Subject & verb The woman is my friend. She has a blue car. The woman thathas a blue caris my friend.
Subject: who= used for people which= used for things that= used for both people and things Anadjective clause closely follows the noun it modifies: Example: Thebook is mine. It is on the table. The book that is on the tableis mine. The book which is on the tableis mine.
Ex. 2, p. 271 • B, C • A, B • B, C
Homework - Ex. 3 2. The girl who/that won the race ishappy. 3. The studentwho/that sits next to meis from China. 4. The studentswho/that sit in the front rowarefrom China. 5. We are studying sentencesthat/which contain adjective clauses. 6. I am using a sentencethat/which contains an adjective clause.
Ex. 4, p. 271 • Peoplewho run marathons amaze me. • I don’t like peoplewho are mean. • Friendswho are always late frustrate me. • Famous athleteswho take drugs are not good role models for children.
Object: who(m)= used for people which = used for things that= used for both people and things 0= object pronoun can be deleted Example: The movie wasn’t good. We saw it last night. The movie(that/0) wesaw last nightwasn’t good.
Ex. 7, p. 273 2. B, C, F 3. A, B, E, F 4. B, C, F 5. A, B, E, F
Ex. 8, p. 273 2. I liked the woman0I met at the party last night. 3. I liked the essaythat youwrote. 4. The peoplewho/that/whom/0wevisited yesterday were very nice. 5. The manwho/that/whom/0Annbrought to the partyis standing over there.
Object of Preposition who= used for people that= used for both people and things 0= can be deleted • Very Formal – preposition comes at the beginning (about) whom= used for people (to) which = used for things Example: The music was good. We listened to it. The music to which we listened was good. (formal) The music which we listened to was good. The music that we listened to was good. The music we listened to was good.
Ex. 10, 274 • A, B, C • A, B, D, F
Exercise 12 2. Did I tell you about the womanwho(m)/that/---- I met last night? 3. The reportwhich/that/---- Joeis writingmust be finished by Friday. 4. Thedoctorwho/thatexamined the sick child was gentle. 5. Did you hear about the earthquakethat/whichoccurred in D.C? 6. The womanthat/who(m)/---I was dancing with stepped on my toes.
Homework - Exercise 13 2. I returned the money which/that/--- I had borrowed from my roommate. 3. Yesterday I ran into a friendwho/whom/that/--- Ihadn’t seen for years. 4. Marie lectured on a topicwhich/that/--- she knew very little about. Marie lectured on a topicabout which sheknew very little. 5. I read about a manwho/that keeps chickens in his apartment.
Exercise 14 • In our village, there were manypeople who/that didn’t have much money. • I enjoyed the bookthat youtold me to read. • I still remember the manwho taught me… • I showed my father a picture of the car--I amgoing to buy as soon as I save enough money. • The woman about whom I was talking suddenly walked into the room. • The peoplewho/that appear in the play are amateur actors. • I don’t like to spend time with peoplewho/that lose their temper easily. • who/that were • People who/that work in the hunger program estimate that…. • In one corner of the marketplace, an old manwas playing a violin.
Possessive Adjective whose= shows possession Example: I know the man. His bike was stolen. I know the manwhose bike was stolen. The student writes well. I read her essay. The studentwhose essay I read writes well.
Compare Modify possessive adjective: • I know the man. His car is black. (his, her, its, their) • I know the manwhose car is black. Modify subject: • I know the man. He has a black car. • I know the man who/that has a black car. whose = whooz who's = whooz
Exercise 17, p. 277 • whose • who • who • whose • whose • who who: pronoun + verb whose: possessive adjective + noun
Exercise 18, p. 278 2. Mrs. North teaches a class for studentswhose native language is not English. 3. The people whose house wevisited were nice. 4. I live in a dormitorywhose residents come from many countries. 5. I have to call the manwhose umbrella I accidentally picked up after the meeting. 6. The manwhose beard caught on fire when he lit a cigarette poured a glass…
Place The house is very old. He lives there. The housewhere he lives is very old. The housein which he lives is very old. The housewhich he lives in is very old. The house that he lives in is very old. The househe lives in is very old.
Place The city is small. He lives there. The city where he lives is small. The city in which he lives is small. The city which he lives in is small. The city that he lives in is small. The city---- he lives in is small.
Ex. 24 1. The city ---we spent our vacation in was beautiful. 2. That is the restaurant where I will meet you. 3. The office which I work in is busy. 4. That is the drawerthat I keep my jewelry in.
Homework • The townwhere I grew up has changed. The townwhich I grew up in has changed. 2. The housewhere I livedisn’t there anymore. The house--- I lived inisn’t there anymore. 3. The streetwhere I lived is now a parking lot. The streeton which I lived is now a parking lot. 4. The park where I played is now a mall. The park in which I played is now a mall.
Saturday is the day on which I go to the movies with… Saturday is the day that I go to the movies… Saturday is the day when I go to the movies… • Sunday is the day on which I play tennis… Sunday is the day when I play tennis.. Sunday is the day that I play tennis..
Adjective Clauses - Review • Subject: • who/that = people, which/that = things • Object: • who(m)/that/--- = people, which/that/--- = things • Object of Prep: • formal: prep + which/whom • Possessive: • whose • Place: • where + no prep • that/which/---- + prep 6. Time: • when/that/ --- + no prep • prep + which
My neighborwhose plants I water when she goes away is a teacher. • This is the summer holiday when she always travels. • She travels with her older sister who lives in LA. • This year they’re taking a trip in a car --she just bought. • They’ve decided to go to Ohio where they both grew up. • Their parents owned a farm which/that was located outside Cincinnati. • They have lots of relatives who they haven’t seen in years in Ohio.
9. The family is going to have a reunion which they have been planning all year. 10.They’ll be staying with their Aunt Sarah whose house is on the Ohio River. 11. They really need this vacation which they’ve been looking forward to all year. 14. They would like to stay until autumn when the leaves of the trees turn color. 15. Unfortunately, they have to be back by September 4 when school starts.
Time (year, day, time, etc.) 8:00 is the time. My class starts then. (at that time) 8:00 is the timewhen my class starts. 8:00 is the timeat which my class starts. 8:00 is the timethat my class starts. 8:00 is the time0 my class starts.
Ex. 26 1. Monday is the day on whichthey will come. 2. 7:05 is the time when my planearrives. 3. 1960 is the year that the revolutiontook place. 4. July is the month ---the weatheris usually the hottest.
Exercise 27, p. 281 3. A café is a small restaurantwherepeople can get a light meal. 4. Every neighborhood in Brussels has small cafeswherecustomersdrink coffee and eat pastries. 5. There was a time whendinosaursdominated the earth. 6. The housewhere I wasborn and grew up was destroyed in an earthquake 10 years ago. 7. The miser hid his money in a placewhere itwas safe from robbers. 8. There came a time when the miser had to spend his money.
Punctuating Adjective Clauses p. 285 Rules: 1. DoNOT use commas if the adjective clause is necessary to identify the noun. 2. Use commas if the adjective clause gives EXTRA information. Theprofessor who teaches Chemistry 101 is an excellent professor. (adjective clause is necessary to identify which professor, so NO commas needed) Professor Wilson, who teaches Chemistry 101, is an excellent teacher. (commas are used because it isn't necessary to identify which professor here)
Compare the Meaning: The children, who wanted to play soccer,went to the park. Allthe children wanted to play soccer and all the children ran to an open field. The adjective clause is used only to give additional info about the children. Thechildren who wanted to play soccerwent to the park. Some of the children wanted to play soccer- use no comma. The adjective clause is used to identify which children ran to the open field.
Exercise 35, p. 286 Important – NC (No comma) Extra – C (comma) 3. C 4. NC 5. NC 6. C 7. C 8. NC 9. NC 10. C
Exercise 38, p. 288 ALL = C SOME = NC 3. A 4. B 5. A - all (only one) 6. B – some (more than one)
Whole Sentence Using which to describe a whole sentence is informal and happens in spoken English. Tom was late. That surprised me. That = the whole sentence. Tom was late,which surprised me.
Exercise 46, p. 292 2. She usually came to work late, which upset her boss. 3. So her boss fired her, which made her angry. 4. She hadn’t saved any money, which was unfortunate. 5. So she had to borrow some money from, which I didn’t like. 6. She has found a new job, which is lucky. 7. So she has repaid the money she borrowed from me, which I appreciate. 8. She has promised herself to be one time to work every day, which is a good idea.
Adjective Phrases Adjective phrase: • Describes a noun (after noun) • No subject and verb Only adjective clauses that have subject pronoun- who/which/that can be reduced.
Adjective Phrases Two ways to reduce: • Verb - BE: drop subject & be The man who is talking to John is from Korea. The man talking to John is from Korea. • No Verb – BE: drop subject & add +ing English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters. English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.
Exercise 51, p. 295 – Adjective Phrases 2. The scientistsresearching the causes of cancer are making progress. 3. We have an apartment overlooking the park. 4. The photographs published in the newspaper… 5. The rules allowing public access… 6. The psychologists studying the nature of sleep… 7. Antarctica is covered by a huge ice cap containing 70% of the earth’s fresh water. 8. …. I met Jacob, his partner. 9. Many of the students hoping to enter this university will be disappointed because only one-tenth of those applying for admission will be accepted. 10. Kuala, the capital of Malaysia, is a major trade center in Southeast Asia.
Exercise 53, p. 295 2. Corn was one of the agricultural products which was introduced to the European settlers by Indians. Some of the other products that/which were introduced… 3. Mercury, which is the nearest planet to the sun, is also the smallest of the planets that orbit our sun. 4. The pyramids, which are the monumental tombs…. 5. Any student that/who doesn’t want to go on the trip should inform the office. 6. Be sure to follow the instructions that/which are given at the top of the page.
Homework • Mike was accepted at the state university, which is surprising. • Mike didn’t do well in high school, which is unfortunate. • The university…., which is lucky for Mike. • The university…, which is a fine idea. • Mike might actually be a college graduate one day, which would be a miracle!
Practice 21 2. The person in charge of this department is out to lunch. 3. The picture painted by Picasso is extremely valuable. 4.The professors doing research will not teach classes next year. 5. The students’ research projects in progress must be… 6. The students’ research projects scheduled to begin in September will have… 7. Toronto, the largest city in Canada, is not the capital. 8. … there are eight planets orbiting the sun. 9. Pluto, formerly known as a planet, was reclassified… 10. Now there is a slang verb, to pluto, meaning “to devalue something…”
Ex. 15, p. 276 • Yes, I am sitting in a chair that is comfortable. • Yes, I saw a man who was wearing a brown suit.
Ex. 58, p. 299 • Baseball is the only sport which I’m interest in. • My favorite teacher, Mr. Chu, was always willing to help me after class. • It is important to be polite to people who live in the same building. • My sister has two children, whose names are Ali and Talal. • He comes from Venezuela, which is a Spanish-speaking country. • who are • , which is • … expressing traditional beliefs.