Clauses, Phrases & Sentence TypesEnglish 10 AcademicMrs. Llanos Sentence Types Phrases Clauses Independent Fragments Simple Compound Dependent Fused Dependent Clauses in Complex Sentences Complex Compound-Complex
Independent & Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses a group of words that contains a subject and a verb Expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence Does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence Expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence Does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence
Independent & Subordinate Clauses Practice: Identify the italicized words as independent or subordinate clauses. • Before you sign up for a vacation trip, read the fine print. • Most tour companies are responsible operators. • However, travelers must agree to their terms and conditions. • Whenever you see the word “liability,”read the text carefully. • Pay attention to the details as you read.
Practice: Identify the italicized words as independent or subordinate clauses. • Tour companies hire outside services, but they aren’t responsible for mishaps with those services. • If the airline loses your luggage, the tour company isn’t accountable. • When there’s no heat in the mountain lodge, the tour guide can only sympathize. • In fact, he or she will probably complain as much as you will. • Of course, no one is responsible if Mother Nature rains on your vacation.
Simple & Compound Sentences • Simple Sentence =one independent clause • Ex: The cow jumps over the moon. • Compound Sentence = two or more independent clauses joined by conjunction(s) • - Independent clauses may be joined by a semicolon (used alone or with a transition). • Ex: The cow jumps over the moon, and the fork ran away with the spoon. Subject+ Verb + Complete Thought Conjunctions= connectors
Sentence Fragments part of a sentence has been left out A fragment doesn’t convey a complete thought.
Sentence Fragments My little sister has a dance recital tonight. Missing Subject My mother sat up all night sewing her costume. Missing Verb My sister will dance the part of the leading ladybug. Missing Helping Verb She is scheduled to perform at the end of the recital. Missing Subject & Verb I feel I ought to go, since she goes to all my soccer games. OR Since She goes to all my soccer games. Subordinate Clause
Sentence Fragments In 1865 Western Union needed a telegraph cable. To link America to Europe. Before they could lay the cable across Siberia. Someone needed to survey the land. The task of surveying to George Kennan, an accomplished telegrapher. went
Fused Sentences two or more sentences have been run together without adequate punctuation It doesn’t show clearly where one idea begins and another ends.
Fused (Run-On)Sentences In 1972, a company called Atari created the first video game. It was called Pong. Missing End Mark By modern standards it was a very simple game, but it quickly achieved great popularity. Comma Splice (Two complete thoughts are separated only by a comma.) By modern standards it was a very simple game; it quickly achieved great popularity. By modern standards it was a very simple game. It quickly achieved great popularity.
Fused (Run-On) Sentences Kennan was not a linguist, he thought Russian was impossible to learn.
Complex Sentences Subject+ Verb + Complete Thought • Complex Sentence =one independent clause + 1 or more dependent clauses • Ex: While Mary cooks dinner, she watches the evening news.
Compound-Complex Sentences • Compound-Complex Sentence =2 independent clauses joined by a conjunction + 1 or more dependent clause(s) • Ex: I read Frankenstein, which Mary Shelley wrote, and I reported on it. Subject+ Verb + Complete Thought