Syntax III Jack & Ivy 2012.9.25
5.1 English Verbs • 5.1.1 Verb forms • 5.1.2 The syntactic environment • 5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence: the perfect construction • 5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases • 5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs • 5.1.6 Structure of tensed clauses • 5.1.7The position of main verbs and auxiliaries in the clausal structure • 5.1.8 Summary of verbs distribution
Verbs function as the head of Verb Phrases(P.258) VP VP VP V DP PP V V DP laugh DP Juliet P kiss give flowers Juliet to
5.1 English Verbs5.1.1 Verb Forms Non-finite verb forms Infinitive to use to show Participles: past participle used shown passive participle used shown present participle using showing Finite verb forms used showed Past tense uses shows Present tense
Verbs inflected for past or present tense and agreement are often referred to as finite verbs. • The other verb forms as non-finite verbs.
5.1.2 The syntactic environment The perfect auxiliary have co-occurs with a past participle. a. Many students have liked Romeo and Juliet. The passive auxiliary be co-occurs with a passive participle. a. Juliet was loved by Romeo.
5.1.2 The syntactic environment • Progressive be co-occurs with a present participle. a. Many students are reading Romeo and Juliet.
Infinitives As the complement of a modal a. Many students couldread Romeo and Juliet. As the complement of a causative verb or a verb of perception. a. They let Romeo and Juliet die. b. They saw Juliet kiss Romeo.
InfinitivesIn different types of infinitival complements to-infinitivals a. Many student try to read Romeo and Juliet. for-to infinitivals a. Many professors want very much for their students to read Romeo and Juliet.
Tensed clauses require tensed verbs inflected for past or present tense.
main clause a. Romeo loved Juliet. b.*Romeo loving/to love Juliet. • embedded clause a. I believe that Romeo loved Juliet. b. I don’t knowif Romeo loved Juliet.
Generalizations • Particular verbal forms co-occur with particular auxiliaries. • Particular verbal forms co-occur with particular types of clauses.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction R1 (first version) A sentence containing the perfect auxiliary have must contain a past participle. Is this hypothesis correct ?
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction Check a. *Many students seen have Juliet. b. *Seen many students have Juliet. c. *Many students have see+V Juliet died+pp. The past participles must stay close to auxiliaries’ right side.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction VP1 VP2 have V [+past participle] DP Hamlet read
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction R2 (second version) Have requires or demands a complement which contains a past participle. Is it the precise characterization to say a complement which contains a past participle?
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction Bad case Good case VP = complement of have have VP = complement of have have V VP V +past part V +past part Too Far
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction This part of the structure must contain the past participle VP VP In other words, it needs aimmediate complement.
5.1.3 The properties of co-occurrence : the perfect construction R3 (third version) Have requires or demands a past participle in its “immediate” complement. Then, Why must have contain the past participle and the label of constituent ?
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases PP AP VP Heads determine the category of their projection in syntax. P A V
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases • Heads in morphology • Suffixes c-select the morpheme that they attach to. -ize c-selcets N change N to V symbol-ize -ment c-selcets V change V to N establish-ment The category of the newly formed word is determined by the right most suffix
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases • Compound have heads • In English, compounds are head-final. N V A N A V A N N green house nation wide baby sit
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases have VP [+past part] V [v see +past part] Since the past participle is the head of the VP complement, the VP projection is marked +past participle.
5.1.4 Projections: heads and phrases R4 (final) Have requires or demands (=selects) a past participle complement.
Building Larger Structures • (Passive) be requires a [+passive participle] complement. • (Progressive) be requires a [+present participle] complement. Example: This play should have been being read by the students. (perfect have, progressive be, passive be, main V)
VP V VP + past part have V [+en] VP + present part V [+ing] VP + passive part been being DP V [+ed] read [e] this play
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs For Kate to defy Petruccio takes courage. The for DP to VP string acts as a single constituent. This constituent is called infinitive CP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs VP to To always combines with an infinitival VP to its right. To is a realization of the category T (tense)
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs • Conclude that TP contains two layers of structure: • one layer in which the head combines with a complement to its right, forming a constituent T’. • a higher layer where T’ combines with a specifier forming TP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs CP TP For T’ DP to VP
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs Accusative subject pronouns can only appear if for is present. a. Forher (*she) to be loved.
5.1.5 Infinitives and tensed verbs • heads demand certain types of complements. • the complement is the sister of the head.
Tensed clauses A tensed clause demands a finite verb. - main clause a. Katherina defied (*defy/*to defy) Petruccio. -embedded clause a. Many students concluded that katherina defied (*defy/*to defy) Petruccio.
Tensed clauses What does this reveal about the mental grammar? CP that VP [+T] Katherina defied Petruccio
Main clauses require tensed verbs The C node happens to be silent in main tensed clause CP C+ decl, +main VP [+T] DP A silent head exists in English Katherina V+T DP defied Petruccio
C [+decl, +main], c-selects +Tense, C is not pronounced. C[+decl, +embedded], c-selects +Tense, C is pronounced as that.
Languages with an overt complementizer in all declarative clauses Korean (nom= nominative, dec= declarative) romio-ka culiet-kwa kicaŋ-e ka-ss-ta Romeo-nom Juliet-with theater-to go-past-decl (matrix) ‘Romeo went with Juliet to the theater.’ The building blocks of syntax are heads which can be either silent or overt.
Comparing infinitives and tensed clauses CP CP VP[+T] [cthat] [cfor] TP DP V’ DP V+T DP Katherina [+to] VP Katherina V DP defies P defy P
Comparing infinitives and tensed clauses • Infinitive to is a free standing morpheme in T. • Finite tense is expressed as a suffix on the verb. • The subject in the infinitival is located in a different structural position than the subject of a tensed clause.
Enriching the structure of tensed complements CP CP TP[+T] that for TP[+T] T’ DP T’ DP R+Tense VP[+T] Katherina [Tto] VP[+inf] Katherina V DP DP V+T defy P P defies
5.1.6 on the structure of tensed clauses Auxiliaries: a. Juliet has gone to the nunnery. b. Juliet is sad. Modals a. Juliet will go to the garden. Main verbs a. Juliet wrote to Romeo.
5.1.6 on the structure of tensed clauses Auxiliaries and modals can precede the subject in yes-no questions. a. Is she going to the garden? b. Should she go the garden? c.Has she gone to the garden?
VP ellipsis Although Regan has not been a good daughter to Lear, Cordelia has. (been a good daughter to Lear) This process that allows the VP to be silent is referred as VP ellipsis
VP ellipsis Although Regan has not been a good daughter to Lear, Cordelia has. (been a good daughter to Lear) The pronounce part is referred as the remnant of VP ellipsis
VP ellipsis It needs support !! TP [+tense] DP T’ VP ellipsis [+T-ed] VP DP V This is incorrect defy P
Do-support TP [+tense] DP T’ VP ellipsis [ do+ [t-ed] ] VP Insert do to support(=save) a stranded suffix in T. DP V defy P
Affix-hoping Input Affix-hoping Output T VP T VP -ed V V defy defy +ed
Head movement T VP -ed V defy
VP ellipsis for VP2 • [TPEmilia [[T-s] [VP1 be [VP2 listening to Iago]] too]] VP ellipsis of VP2 It is impossible to ellipsis of VP1
Finite forms of HAVE and BE are in tensed T. b. Finite forms of MAIN VERBS are in VP.