Four Levels of Grammar • Eight Parts of Speech • Parts of the sentence • Phrases • Clauses
Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Level One: Eight Parts of Speech
Nouns • Person: Bob • Place: school • Thing: stapler • Idea: freedom
Verb • Action verbs show what a noun is doing—He ran. • Linking verbs link the subject to a complement—He is a poet.
Pronoun • Used in place of a noun • Bob went to school. • He went to school. • He is the pronoun that replaces Bob.
Adjective • Modifies a noun or pronoun. • The drink was cold. • Cold is an adjective that modifies drink.
Adverb • Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. • We swam slowly. • Slowly modifies swam. • He is too tall. • Too modifies tall.
Preposition • Shows a relationship between its object and another word in the sentence • “Anywhere a cat can go.” • The sphere is inside the cube. • She drove around the house.
Conjunction • Joins two words or two groups of words together • Bob and Jane were there, but we were not. • And and but are conjunctions.
Interjection • Shows emotion but has no grammatical purpose. • “The Batman words.” • Ugh, oops, yes, no, wow • Rahhrggh!!!
Parts of the Sentence • Subject • Predicate • Direct Object • Indirect Object
Subject • The noun or pronoun the sentence is about. • The bird sailed gracefully over the fence. • Bird is the subject of the sentence.
Predicate • The verb, or what is said about the subject. • Bob went to the store. • Went is the predicate because it says what Bob is doing.
Direct Object • A noun or object pronoun that receives the action of the verb. • Sparks struck the side. • The side receives the action struck from the subject sparks.
Indirect Object • A noun or object pronoun that located between the action verb and the direct object. • We gave him the business. • Him is an indirect object that falls between gave (verb) and the business (direct object).
Phrases • A group of words with no subject/predicate set • In the boat • We are not sure whom or what is in the boat. • We are not sure what is happening in the boat.
Appositive Phrase • An interrupting definition • Bob, the science teacher, is tall. • The science teacher defines Bob and interrupts the sentence Bob is tall. • Appositives will always be set off by commas (,).
Verbal Phrase • Form of a verb used as a noun, adjective, or an adverb • Gerund • Participial • Infinitive
Gerund Phrase • A gerund is the present participle of a verb (the –ing form) used as a noun. • Bowling is a very old sport • A gerund phrase can be a subject, a direct object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun. • I tried bowling a strike.
Participial Phrase • A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective. You can use the past or present form of the participle. • The trained guide led us along the trail. • A participial phrase is made up of a participle and its accompanying words. • Fearing failure, the hikers turned back.
Infinitive Phrase • An infinitive is formed with the word to and the base form of the verb. • It functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb. • Do you want to study? • An infinitive phrase is made up of the infinitive and the words that complete its meaning. • Do you want to study your notes?
Prepositional Phrase • Begins with a preposition and concludes with the object of the preposition • The cat ran around the house. • Around is a preposition and the house is the object of the preposition.
Verb Phrase • Consists of a main verb, preceded by at least one auxiliary/helping verb • The main verb expresses the action • The helping verb or verbs help complete the meaning of the main verb • Sean has gone to the store. • We have been sitting for hours.
Clause • A group of words with a subject/predicate set • If the moon rises, I will get the telescope. • The clause I will get the telescope has a subject I and a predicate get (the telescope).
Independent Clause • Makes sense independently, or on its own • I will get the telescope.
Dependent Clause • Does not make sense on its own • If the moon rises
Sentence Structure • The “clause make-up” of the sentence. • Simple sentence • Compound sentence • Complex sentence • Compound-Complex
Simple Sentence • Has one independent clause • Bob likes to work in the morning.
Compound Sentence • Has two independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or a semi-colon • Bob likes to work in the morning, but he doesn’t mind working in the afternoon.
Complex sentence • Has one independent clause and at least one dependent clause • When I get home, I like to hang out with my kids.
Compound-complex sentence • Has two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause • Because I work late hours, I eat dinner for breakfast, and I eat breakfast for dinner.
Purpose • Refers to the reason you are writing the sentence • Declarative (.) • Interrogative (?) • Imperative (. or !) • Exclamatory (!)
Declarative • Written to make a statement . • I am going to the store.
Interrogative • Written to ask a question ? • Why are you going to the store?
Imperative • Written to give a request . or ! • You should go to the store. • You are going to the store!
Exclamatory • Written to show emotion ! • I don’t want to go with you to the store!