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DNA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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DNA. Introduction. Do you think DNA is important?. T.V shows Movies Biotech Films News Cloning Genetic Engineering. DNA. DNA cont. At the most basic level DNA is a set of instructions for protein construction. Structural Enzymes Hormones. What do you need to know?.

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slide1

DNA

Introduction

do you think dna is important
Do you think DNA is important?
  • T.V shows
  • Movies
  • Biotech Films
  • News
  • Cloning
  • Genetic Engineering
dna cont
DNA cont.
  • At the most basic level DNA is a set of instructions for protein construction.
    • Structural
    • Enzymes
    • Hormones
what do you need to know
What do you need to know?
  • Structure of DNA
  • How DNA replicates (reproduces)?
  • How DNA transcribes RNA?
  • How Ribosomes use the RNA to correctly assemble proteins?
watson and crick
Watson and Crick
  • Nobel Peace Prize
  • The Double Helix, 1953
  • Outlined the Structure of the DNA
  • Discovered the “locking” of bases
dna structure
DNA Structure
  • DNA is a polymer. Each nucleotide consists of a 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogen containing base attached to the sugar, and a phosphate group.
  • There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA, differing only in the nitrogenous base. The four nucleotides are given one letter abbreviations as shorthand for the four bases.
    • A is for adenine
    • G is for guanine
    • C is for cytosine
    • T is for thymine
dna replication
DNA Replication
  • DNA Replication Website
  • Produces 2 exact copies of DNA
  • Occurs just prior to cell division
protein synthesis1
Protein Synthesis
  • The production (synthesis) of proteins.
  • 3 phases:

1. Transcription

2. RNA processing

3. Translation

  • Remember: DNA  RNA  Protein
dna rna protein

Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

DNA  RNA Protein

Eukaryotic Cell

question
Question:
  • How does RNA(ribonucleic acid) differ from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?
rna differs from dna
RNA differs from DNA

1. RNA has a sugar ribose

DNA has a sugar deoxyribose

2. RNA contains uracil (U)

DNA has thymine (T)

3. RNA molecule is single-stranded

DNA is double-stranded

4. RNAmolecule leaves the nucleus

DNAstays in the nucleus

5. RNA is like a page/recipe

DNA is like the whole book

1 transcription

Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

1. Transcription

Eukaryotic Cell

1 transcription1
1. Transcription
  • The transfer of information in the nucleus from a DNA molecule to an RNA molecule.
  • Only 1 DNA strand serves as the template
  • When complete, RNA molecule can be processed & released to the ribosomes.
question1
Question:
  • What is the enzyme responsible for the production of the RNA molecule?
answer rna polymerase
Answer: RNA Polymerase
  • Separates the DNA molecule by breaking the H-bonds between the bases. (Unzips the DNA)
  • Then moves along one of the DNA strands and lines up complementRNAnucleotides with DNA.
  • Bonds the sugar and phosphate groups of the RNA together. Does not bond the nitrogenous bases.
  • RNA leaves the area between the DNA strands.
  • DNAzips back up.
  • RNA is processed and leaves the nucleus.
1 transcription2

DNA

RNA Polymerase

mRNA in construction

1. Transcription
question2
Question:
  • What would be the complementary RNA strand for the following DNA sequence?
  • DNA GCGTATG
answer
Answer:
  • DNA GCGTATG
  • RNA CGCAUAC
2 rna processing

Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

2. RNA Processing

Eukaryotic Cell

types of rna
Types of RNA
  • Types ofRNA:

A. messenger RNA (mRNA)

B. transfer RNA (tRNA)

  • Remember: all produced in thenucleus!
a messenger rna mrna
A. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Carries the information for a specific protein.
  • Made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long.
  • Made up of codons (sequence of three bases: AUG - methionine).
  • Each codon, is specific for an amino acid.
a messenger rna mrna1

start

codon

A

U

G

G

G

C

U

C

C

A

U

C

G

G

C

G

C

A

U

A

A

mRNA

codon 1

codon 2

codon 3

codon 4

codon 5

codon 6

codon 7

stop

codon

protein

methionine

glycine

serine

isoleucine

glycine

alanine

Primary structure of a protein

aa2

aa3

aa4

aa5

aa6

aa1

peptide bonds

A. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
b transfer rna trna
B. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • Made up of 75 to 80 nucleotides long.
  • Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm
  • Transports amino acids to the mRNA.
  • Have anticodons that are opposites to mRNAcodons.
  • Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds temporarily to them
b transfer rna trna1

amino acid

attachment site

methionine

amino acid

U

A

C

anticodon

B. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
3 translation

Nuclear

membrane

DNA

Transcription

RNA Processing

mRNA

Ribosome

Translation

Protein

3. Translation

Eukaryotic Cell

3 translation1
3. Translation
  • Synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm
  • Involves the following:

1. mRNA (codons)

2. tRNA (anticodons)

3. ribosomes

4. amino acids

3 translation2
3. Translation
  • Three parts:

1. initiation: start codon (AUG)

2. elongation: building the polypeptide chain

3. termination: stop codon (UAG)

  • Let’s make a PROTEIN!!!!.
3 translation3

mRNA

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

3. Translation

Large

subunit

Small subunit

initiation

aa2

aa1

2-tRNA

1-tRNA

G

A

U

U

A

C

Initiation

anticodon

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

hydrogen

bonds

codon

mRNA

slide38

aa3

3-tRNA

G

A

A

Elongation

peptide bond

aa1

aa2

1-tRNA

2-tRNA

anticodon

U

A

C

G

A

U

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

hydrogen

bonds

codon

mRNA

slide39

aa3

3-tRNA

G

A

A

aa1

peptide bond

aa2

1-tRNA

U

A

C

(leaves)

2-tRNA

G

A

U

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon

slide40

aa4

4-tRNA

G

C

U

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

2-tRNA

3-tRNA

G

A

U

G

A

A

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

slide41

aa4

4-tRNA

G

C

U

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

2-tRNA

G

A

U

(leaves)

3-tRNA

G

A

A

A

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon

slide42

aa5

5-tRNA

U

G

A

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa4

aa3

3-tRNA

4-tRNA

G

A

A

G

C

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

slide43

aa5

5-tRNA

U

G

A

peptide bonds

aa1

aa2

aa3

aa4

3-tRNA

G

A

A

4-tRNA

G

C

U

G

C

U

A

C

U

U

C

G

A

A

C

U

mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon

slide44

aa5

aa4

Termination

aa199

aa200

aa3

primary

structure

of a protein

aa2

aa1

terminator

or stop

codon

200-tRNA

A

C

U

C

A

U

G

U

U

U

A

G

mRNA

end product

aa5

aa4

aa3

aa2

aa199

aa1

aa200

End Product
  • The end products of protein synthesis are the primary structure of a protein.
  • A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds.
question3
Question:
  • The anticodon UAC belongs to a tRNA that recognizes and binds to a particular amino acid.
  • What would be the DNA base code for this amino acid?
answer1
Answer:
  • tRNA - UAC (anticodon)
  • mRNA - AUG (codon)
  • DNA - TAC
polyribosome

incoming

large

subunit

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

mRNA

incoming

small subunit

polypeptide

Polyribosome
  • Groups of ribosomes reading same mRNA simultaneously producing many proteins (polypeptides).
slide51

draw one side of dna ...   fill in other side ...   circle a nucleotide ...   point out H-bonds

slide53

unzip a simplified dna, showing basesshow pool of free nucleotidesfill in complementary nucleotidessugars/phosphates bondend with 2 identical dna strands