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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 Effective Business Communication By: Musa Farooqi

  2. Components of communication Communication is effective when it achieves the desired reaction or response the receiver. Communication includes six components. Context Sender encoder Message Medium Receiver decoder feedback By: Musa Farooqi

  3. Context Every message ,whether oral or written, begins with context. Context is the combination of surroundings, circumstances, environment, background, settings, attitudes, opinions, past experiences, likes, dislikes, education, job status and confidence which determine, specify the meaning of an event. Or the part of text or statement that surrounds a particular word or passage and determines it meanings so context is a broad field that includes country, culture, organization and external and internal Ex: Giving order in military field, very strict. weeping after winning the game and weeping after loosing the game etc. By: Musa Farooqi

  4. Sender-Encoder • When you send a message you are the encoder the writer and the speaker depending on whether your message is written or oral. Sender could be the person or thing who causes the message to be sent. Just like you send a letter to your friend. In this case you are sender of the letter. The entire burden of communication then rests upon the sender or encoder Message The message is the main idea or core idea that you wish to communicate. It is both verbal (written or spoken) symbols and non-verbal (unspoken) symbols. By: Musa Farooqi

  5. Medium It means the way by which a message is communicated. Medium could be, email, television, radio, letter etc. The choice of medium is affected by the relationship between the sender and the receiver such as; boss, subordinates, love letter in decorative envelope. In case of urgent response, quick medium is selected such as oral communication brings back immediate feedback as it has a conversational nature with shorter words and sentences. On other hand for delayed feedback written communication is selected, it is best for permanent record, this medium uses longer words and longer sentences etc. Mediums use inside organizations are; memos, bulletins, notes, etc Mediums used outside organizations are; letters, reports, proposal etc By: Musa Farooqi

  6. Receiver-Decoder The receiver/decoder of your message is your reader or listener. Being, the sender you must know the listener, mind, attitude, culture, level of education, language and etc. your message should be receiver oriented. Feedback Feedback is the required response/reaction from the receiver. There could be various feedback such as; the answer of letter, the supply of ordered goods and etc. The feedback can be desired (positive response) and un-desired (negative response). Senders need feedback in order to determine the success or failure of the communication. The errors and flaws that abound in business situations are a result of lack of feedback such as; this is not what I mean or this is not what I said? By: Musa Farooqi

  7. Components of communication Context Receiver Decoder Sender Encoder Message Feedback Medium email, letter etc By: Musa Farooqi

  8. Concepts and problems in communicationThe barrier/falloff of communication The word barrier means: Problems, resistance, restrain etc. So the barrier of communication means: The various problems which stop the message to be conveyed effectively to the receiver. Communication has a special place in every organization. Effective communication creates a favorable environmental among the various people working in the enterprise which results in the establishment of organization. However, sometimes communication does not yield the desired results. It is because barriers appear in the process of communication. By: Musa Farooqi

  9. Concepts and problems in communicationThe barrier/falloff of communication The information sent by the sender is received by the receiver in the opposite sense and it proves to be a barrier in communication. The barrier can be in the form of wrong use of language or haste on the part of the receiver in understanding the information received or some other reason Problems in communication is more likely to occur when the communicator’s filters are sharply different. Message sender’s meanings and receiver’s response are affected by mainly four factors By: Musa Farooqi

  10. Barriers of communication The four kinds of communication’s barriers are under mentioned • Semantic barrier of communication/Convention of meaning • Psychological barrier of communication/Perception of reality • Physical barriers of communication: The study of word choice • Values, attitudes and opinions: Note: People in the world are not exactly alike. Cultures or countries are not the same. These differences, however, can cause problems in conveying your meanings. Each person’s mind is different from others. As a result, message sender’s meanings and the receiver’s responses are affected by many factors By: Musa Farooqi

  11. Conventions of meaning/Semantic barriers Semantic barriers of communication: The study of word choice A fundamental principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to communicate messages that must have essentially the same meaning in both the sender’s and receiver’s minds. For example many acronyms have become accepted into standard English and are generally understood by most people such as UNHCR, MRRD. When the message sender and receiver get different meanings to the same words or use miscommunication occur. By: Musa Farooqi

  12. Conventions of meaning/Semantic barriers • synonyms Ex: run • formal Ex: mistake • informal Ex: boner, • grammatical functions Ex: tear (v), tear (n), • literal meaning: denotative meaning Ex: crawl, • figurative meaning: connotative meaning Ex: crawl, • Same pronunciation but having different meanings Ex: prophet, profit, • acronyms Ex: PC, IGNOU, MAIL, • Badly expressed words/messages Ex: Class Vs Clause By: Musa Farooqi

  13. Conventions of meaning/Semantic barriers 1. A hired a new office manager with the Instructions to turn in a bimonthly report. Bimonthly means both twice a month and every two months. 2. A woman sold a piece of property and asked her attorney to draw up a contract of sale. She receives the contract for signature that there was written that she wants to sell her tenement and she quickly telephoned that the land which I sell has no building inside. Her attorney said the word tenement means in law only a land By: Musa Farooqi

  14. Conventions of meaning/Semantic barriers 3. A British manager of a large retail was working in the United States wanted to update on the department’s activities. He looked over a minutes from the last staff meeting which he had not attended he saw with satisfactions that group had tabled his proposal to decrease allowable travel expenses. He was very sad, however when he found that his staff had put the proposal off until next meeting. In Britain to table a proposal means to act on it By: Musa Farooqi

  15. Psychological barrier of communication/Perception of reality The barrier which is caused due to different human mind and feelings is called psychological barrier of communication. Because of the changing world, everyone has his own concept of reality. Our sensory perceptions; touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste are limited and each person’s mental filter is unique. We make various abstraction, inferences. By: Musa Farooqi

  16. Psychological barrier of communication/Perception of reality Perceptional blocks • Communication involves perception and perception is never precise. Every person perceives things differently. We live in different subjective world. The same data or ideas, people see, interpret or respond to them differently. People’s perceptions are based on their experiences and knowledge. It consists of abstraction/selecting and inferences. Abstracting: selecting some details and omitting others is a process called abstracting. Differences in abstracting take place not only when persons describe events but also when they describe people and objects. In this barrier usually slating (to see only one side of argument) occurs. Just like a reporter. Example of pictures. Inference: conclusions made by reasoning from evidence are called inferences or an inference is a conclusion drawn from connotation rather than from official details. We make assumptions and draw conclusions even though we are not able to immediately verify the evidence. Some inferences are both necessary and desirable’ others are risky, even and others are dangerous By: Musa Farooqi

  17. Psychological barrier of communication/Perception of reality For example: a person who says that his work is undervalued may mean to suggest that he does not get enough positive feedback from his supervisor, without specific detail, however, the receiver of the message might infer that the speaker believes his salary isn’t high enough. Emotional block • Likeness and dislikeness of the people/ audience to whom you are talking By: Musa Farooqi

  18. Physical Barriers of Communication • Physical Barriers: Communication does not consist of words alone. Another set of barrier is caused by physical appearance (writing barriers + Speaking barriers) Written barriers • In written barriers could be jammed margins, fingerprints or smudges, unclear photocopies, unreadable word processor printout, water, coffee or tea spots etc Speaking barriers • Mumbling, not enunciating, speaking too quickly, noises, hissing ventilation, ringing telephones, slamming doors, improper work of mike during presentation etc By: Musa Farooqi

  19. Communication problems involving Values, Attitudes and Opinions • Value-are the collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and proper-or bad, undesirable and improper in a culture • They indicate what people in a culture prefer as well as what they find important and morally right or wrong. • Values may be specific, such as bowing, shaking hands and etc By: Musa Farooqi

  20. Types of Communication from the point of style • Verbal Communication • Non-verbal Communication Verbal Communication • Oral: Words + Articulation • Written: Words + color (text) Non-verbal Communication Wordless messages • Gesture • Posture • Signals • Figures • Etc Body Language By: Musa Farooqi

  21. Differences between oral and written communications Oral Written • Interactive Non-interactive • Simple issues complex issues • Immediate feedback later feedback • Little chance Longer time for decision for decision Both have their advantages and disadvantages. None can take the position of other. Both are essential and needed By: Musa Farooqi

  22. Non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages or the impact of gestures, expressions, and other symbols capable of substituting for words and conveying information. Non-verbal communication consists of that part of a message that is not encoded in words (everyone understands it; Charlie Chaplin). The non-verbal part of the message tends to be less conscious and often reveals the sender’s feelings and preferences more spontaneously and honestly than the verbal part. If the verbal message does not match the non-verbal communication, people tend to believe the nonverbal message such as; you are unhappily accept something. So NVC reinforces your verbal communication. In some occasion the message gets its thorough meanings by the combination of both verbal and non-verbal communication. Like nodding of head and etc By: Musa Farooqi

  23. Types of non-verbal communication Followings are the types of non-verbal communication. • Body movement • Physical characteristics • Touching behavior • Vocal qualities • Space (proximity) • Artifacts • Silence • Time • Environment By: Musa Farooqi

  24. Types of Non-verbal Communication Body movement • Body movement includes movement of the hands, head, feet and legs, posture, eye movements and facial expressions-all these affect the message. The body posture of interviewee, interviewer Physical characteristics • Physical characteristics such as body shape, general attractiveness, weight, hair, skin color are important parts of nonverbal communication. Body figure of educated and un-educated persons By: Musa Farooqi

  25. Types of Non-verbal Communication Vocal qualities • Vocal qualities is that part of language associated with, but not involving the word system. It consists of the voice qualities and vocalizations that affect how something is said rather than what is said. Such as being under pressure, confident, happy, un-happy, enthusiastic and etc during talking. Vocalizations also gives clue to the total message. Three of these are, the tones of voice, rate of speaking and voice inflection are important part of the total message. A tired person, for example, will speak more slowly than usual, a disappointed person may speak with a flat tone, while the tone of voice someone excited about a coming holiday reflects this excitement. By: Musa Farooqi

  26. Types of Non-verbal Communication Touching behavior • Touching is a nearly universal nonverbal aspect of social exchange between people. Almost everyone touches others when communicating face to face, though the type and meaning of touching interpersonal relations is highly variable. Touching behavior consists of touching hand, taping harm, pinching and etc. After hand shaking, you can come to know whether the person was simple, pride, friendly and etc. By: Musa Farooqi

  27. Types of Non-verbal Communication Proximity • Proximity means nearness, in terms of physical space. How people use their personal space and that of others communicates a message. This response to special relationships in formal, informal and intimate setting indicates how that person perceives and feels in that space. Such as; a teacher is passing in corridor and the students on the way get a side. American people keep 8 inches distance while talking with business people as a sign of respect, Australians keep a distance of an arm. Once an Indonesian was coming close to American during the business talking and American was retreating, finally the American got out of room with embarrassment result • Personal space varies according to: • Gender (female + male) (female + female) • Status (donor of receiver + receiver of fund) in a society • Roles (role of father, shopkeeper) • Position (boss + subordinate) in an organization By: Musa Farooqi

  28. Types of Non-verbal Communication Artifact • Artifacts are those objects used to convey non-verbal messages about self-concept, image, mood, feeling or style. For example, perfume, clothes, lipstick, glasses project the style or mood of the wearer. Many artifacts are common to the group but we also use artifacts, particularly clothing, as an individual form of communication. Office dress, marriage party dress and etc By: Musa Farooqi

  29. Types of Non-verbal Communication Silence During anger, or commemoration silence conveys a very important message. Ex: 60 seconds silence were observed to commemorate the deceased of 9/11 Time Upon having message or letter, you are supposed to response it as quickly as possible. It shows respect, delay usually shows lack of carelessness or lack of consideration By: Musa Farooqi

  30. Types of Non-verbal Communication Environmental factors • The environment can influence the outcome of communication. For this reason, organization gives careful consideration to office space, factory layout, the sales area and conference venues. Good environment of office indicates the quality of product. By: Musa Farooqi

  31. Matching non-verbal with verbal part • Matching the non-verbal and verbal parts of the total message, the total message combines spoken words with the nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication adds meaning and modifies. Followings are traits of matching nonverbal and verbal parts are • Repeating: Verbal message + gestures • Contradicting: Verbal message does not match non-verbal ones. By: Musa Farooqi

  32. Salient features of non-verbal communication Basically, we have gotten four types salient feature of non-verbal communications which are under mentioned • Personal non-verbal communication (to the individual) • Cultural non-verbal communication • Universal non-verbal communication (to humankind) • Unrelated to the message non-verbal communication (random) By: Musa Farooqi

  33. Salient features of non-verbal communication • Personal non-verbal communication: PNVC consists of nonverbal behavior that is unique to a person. The meaning is also unique to the person sending the message such as; facial expression, gestures, and etc • Cultural nonverbal communication: CNVC, by contrast, is characteristic of, or common to, a group of people. Such as; waving hand in Japan and America: both have gotten different meanings. By: Musa Farooqi

  34. Salient features of non-verbal communication • Universal non-verbal communication: UNVC is behavior that is common to humankind. Differentiation between Animal and Human beings. Like happiness and sadness. • Un-related verbal communication: URNVC consists of sneeze, cough, yawn and etc which are unrelated to verbal message. During discussion, suddenly you suffer from sneeze, so this sneeze does not have any connection with your discussion. In some occasions it gives you message; such as during medical check up of flue, you sneeze. This shows that you have a terrible sneeze. By: Musa Farooqi

  35. END OF THE FIRST CHAPTER THANK YOU By: Musa Farooqi