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Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper . Domestic policy Foreign policy Precedent Political parties Neutrality. Warm UP. OBJECTIVE.

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warm up

Define these terms using the Mastering the Grade 8 Social Studies TEKS on your own paper.

Domestic policy

Foreign policy

Precedent

Political parties

Neutrality

Warm UP

objective
OBJECTIVE
  • 8.5 Understands the challenges confronted by the government and its leaders in the early years of the republic.
  • 8.5 A Describe major domestic problems faced by the leaders of the new republic.
  • 8.5 C Explain the origin (starting place) and development of American Political Parties.
slide3

Washington’s Presidency(1789-1797)

Washington’s Presidency(1789-1797)

slide4

The 1st President

  • Being the fist president, was very hard for Washington.
  • He had no example to follow.
  • He knew the world would be analyzing his every move.
  • He believed the president should have power to act as president, but he feared any time he used his presidential powers he would be viewed by the people as trying to be a king.
  • He, also, knew that anything he did would set precedence for future presidents, and it did.
george washington 1 st president of united states of america
George Washington1st President of United States of America

Major Challenges for the New President

Define authority of Central Government

Create a stable economic system $$$

Build a military

Maintain National Security

Conduct Foreign relations

Make treaties with Native Americans

washington needs help to meet challenge
Washington Needs help to meet challenge

President Washington is going to start with adding a cabinet to the executive branch because he can not accomplish those challenges by himself. He needs some people to advise him that are experts in that area.

washington s cabinet
Washington’s Cabinet

Thomas Jefferson- Secretary of State

Alexander Hamilton – Secretary of Treasury $$$$

Henry Knox – secretary of War

George Washington

judiciary act of 1789
Judiciary Act of 1789
  • The Judiciary Act of 1789 was passed by Congress.
    • It set up 13 district courts (1 per state).
    • It set up 3 circuit courts (1 per region). These were appellate courts.
first chief justice
First Chief Justice

John Jay was appointed as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.

the bill of rights were adopted
The Bill of Rights Were Adopted

In December 1791, the Bill of Rights were officially added to the Constitution.

hamilton s economic plan
Hamilton’s Economic Plan

Repay the Debt

Combing the National and state debt to establish the nation’s credit.

National Bank

Whiskey Tax

Protective Tariff

Tariff on imported goods to protect American goods.

Tariff was defeated because the Southern states opposed the high tariff rates it would make it harder for Southerners to sale their crops to Britain.

  • Place to deposit taxes
  • Provide sound currency
  • Make loans to National government.

Tax on whiskey to raise money from Western farmers

New tax caused hostility among western farmer. Farmers refused to pay the tax and threaten the tax collectors. Washington had to send the militia to put down the rebellion

Jefferson is against the National Bank not in Constitution as a Federal power

war bonds
War Bonds

Should war bonds be paid at their full value?

Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, said yes. He believed full payment was necessary to gain the trust of the people.

Opposition in the South claimed that only speculators would profit from full payments and since most war bonds were issued in the North, they did not feel responsible for paying them back.

In a compromise, the South agreed to paying full value for the war bonds in exchange for moving the capital further south. The new capital would be moved to an independent area called the District of Columbia and the Capital would be called Washington.

creating a national bank
Creating a National Bank

Should there be a national bank?

Madison and Jefferson said “no”. It would only benefit the wealthy and the Constitution did not allow for it.

Hamilton disagreed. He argued it was an implied power in the Constitution and Congress did have the power to create a bank.

Washington agreed and signed the bill creating the First National Bank.

slide14

The Whiskey Tax

  • The Whiskey Tax
  • Whiskey was made from left over grain grown by farmers.
  • Hamilton saw it as extra cash and created a law taxing the whiskey.
  • The farmers felt the tax was unfair, because only farmers had to pay it.

$$$$$

the whiskey rebellion
The Whiskey Rebellion
  • A group of farmers protested the whiskey tax by attacking tax collectors homes and burning federal buildings. This is known as the Whiskey Rebellion.
  • Washington gathered an army and crushed the rebellion.
  • Washington’s victory proved two things:
      • It proved that Washington could raise an army when needed.
      • It sent a message to the people that the proper way to protest was to contact their congressman.
slide16

Tariffs

$$$$$

$$$$$

Should there be a tariff?

Hamilton proposed a tariff, tax on imports, to protect American industry.

The South, led by Jefferson and Madison, voted against the tariff concerned that it forced citizens to pay higher prices.

The protective tariff passed anyway, but the South continued to fight against it.

how a protective tariff works
How a Protective Tariff Works

In America

In Britain

When shipped to America, a .75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socks

American-made socks sell for 2.00 a pair

British-made socks sell for 1.75 a pair

British-made socks sell for 2.50 a pair

This is why the Southern states were against the tariff

what is a tariff
What is a tariff?

Come up with your own example of what a tariff process

how a protective tariff works1
How a Protective Tariff Works

In America

In Britain

When shipped to America, a .75 cents tariff is added to the price of British socks

American-made socks sell for 2.00 a pair

British-made socks sell for 1.75 a pair

British-made socks sell for 2.50 a pair

This is why the Southern states were against the tariff

ticket out door
Ticket Out door
  • 1) list 3 challenges George Washington faced during his time in office
  • 2) List 3 things that were accomplished during his time in office
  • 3) List domestic issues that arose due to Hamilton’s Financial Plan
  • 4) Why did Jefferson & Madison disagree with the Creation of the Nation Bank.
    • 1
    • 2
hamilton s plan created the formation of the first political parties
Hamilton’s Plan Created the formation of the first Political Parties

OBJ: 8.5 C Explain the origin and development of American political parties.

Federalists vs Democratic-Republicans

formation of political parties

Replacing the Articles of Confederation

Formation of Political Parties

  • Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution
  • Early development of political Parties

Federalist—Strong Central Government

Anti– Federalist

Weak Central Government and strong State

slide23

Political Parties Formed

ReplacingtheArticlesofConfederation

George Washington Elected President

Election for

President

U.S. Constitution Approved

Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution

Early development of political Parties

Federalist—Strong Central Government

Anti– Federalist

Weak Central Government and strong State

Anti-Federalist

added The Bill of Rights

Federalist

Created a strong Central Government

Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury

Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President

Created a Cabinet to help him run the country

slide24

Replacing the Articles of Confederation

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

George Washington Elected President

Election for

President

U.S. Constitution Approved

Process of Ratification of the U.S. Constitution

Early development of political Parties

Federalist

Created a strong Central Government

Anti-Federalist

added The Bill of Rights

Federalist—Strong Central Government

Anti– Federalist

Weak Central Government and strong State

Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury

Created a Cabinet to help him run the country

Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President

Continued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreements

Leads to the Early development of

Political Parties

slide25

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

George Washington Elected President

Election for

President

U.S. Constitution Approved

Federalist

Created a strong Central Government

Anti-Federalist

added The Bill of Rights

Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury

Created a Cabinet to help him run the country

Unanimously voted for 2 terms as President

Continued Federalist and Anti-Federalist disagreements

Splits Washington’s cabinet

Leads to the Early development of Political Parties

Hamilton’s Plan– created a Nation Bank,

Strong Central Government

Thomas Jefferson– Democratic Republican

Disapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more power

*National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factories

Democratic– Republican

Opposed Hamilton’s economic policies

Concern about powers of states

slide26

Hamilton’s Financial Plan

George Washington Elected President

Political Parties have formed

Federalist-

Strong Central Government

Industrial

Democratic - Republican Weak Central Gov’t and Strong State Gov’t

Farmers/small guy

Created a Cabinet to help him run the country

Hamilton selected as Secretary of Treasury

Continued

Federalist

and Anti-Federalist disagreements

Washington’s Farwell Address

John Adams Elected

Splits Washington’s cabinet

Leads to the Early development of Political Parties

Hamilton’s Plan– created a Nation Bank, Strong Central Government

No PDA

Divisions continue to grow with in the country

No

Alliances

*National Bank *Assumption of State *Debt *Nation factories

No Political Parties

Thomas Jefferson– Democratic Republican

Disapprove of National Bank, thinks States have more power

No Debt

Democratic– Republican

Opposed Hamilton’s economic policies

Concern about powers of states

events during washington presidency
Events during Washington Presidency

Problems with Indians

Indians were attacking western settlements.

Washington made treaties with many Indian tribes, but Americans ignored the treaties and continued to move west.

With the British urging them on, the Indians continued to attack various American settlements.

the battle of fallen timbers
The Battle of Fallen Timbers

In 1794, Washington sent troops to defeat the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

After losing the battle, the Indians signed the Treaty of Greenville in which they agreed to surrender all Indian lands in Ohio.

obj 8 5 e
OBJ: 8.5 E
  • Identify the foreign policies of Presidents Washington and explain the impact of Washington’s Farewell address
problems in europe
Problems in Europe

Shortly after Washington became president, in 1789, the French Revolution began.

Many Americans believed America should support the Revolution, because the French supported us in ours.

Other Americans opposed the violence of the French Revolution and its attack on religion and individual liberties. Besides, it was the French king who sent troops to help us during our revolution, not the French people.

the proclamation of neutrality
The Proclamation of Neutrality

In 1793, France and Britain went to war.

Some Americans supported the British and some supported the French.

Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutralityforbidding Americans to take sides.

The British began capturing American cargo ships and forcing the crews to fight for the British navy (impressments).

trying to stay neutral
Trying to Stay Neutral
  • Washington sent John Jay to make peace with Britain.
  • John Jay created a treaty with the British known asJay’s Treaty.
  • In this treaty the British agreed to:
    • finally leave American soil,
    • pay for some damages to captured ships,
    • and allow some American trade in the Caribbean.
  • Most Americans disapproved of this treaty, because it did not address the issue of impressments.

Jay’s Treaty

pinckney s treaty
Pinckney’s Treaty

Spain feared that Jay’s Treaty would

unite the U.S. and Britain against the Spanish Empire in North America.

Washington sent Thomas Pinckney to settle the problem.

In Pinckney’s Treaty, Spain agreed to allow Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and rights to trade in New Orleans.

washington s farewell
Washington’s Farewell

As the first President, Washington set several precedents for future presidents:

1. He served two terms. -

Franklin D. Roosevelt was the only president

to serve more than two terms.

2. He set foreign policyin his “Farewell

Address” given in Sept. 1796 –

“Observe good faith and justice toward all

nations… Tis our policy to steer clear of

permanent alliances.” This policy was

followed for more than 100 years.

3. He created a cabinetcomposed of heads

of departments to advise him. –

All presidents since have had cabinets.

4. He also warned of the dangers of political

parties.

Washington’s farewell address is read in the Senate every year on Washington's Birthday.

washington farewell address
Washington Farewell address

NO

  • P

ARTIES

D

EBT

A

LLIANCES