Motivation Sports Psychology Tutor: Leanne Smart
Motivation • Most definitions of motivation refer to having a drive to take part and to persist in an activity. • A sport specific definition is a tendency of an individual or a team to begin a carry on with the activities relating to their sport • There are 2 main types of motivation: Intrinsic&Extrinsic
Intrinsic • Intrinsic motivation is taking part in a sport without any external reward. • The primary motivation is internally e.g. Enjoyment and the feel good factor. • Intrinsic motivation is in its purest form when an athlete trains and competes for enjoyment
3 Types of intrinsic motivation • Accomplishments – this is when an athletes wish to increase their level of skill to get a sense of accomplishment • Stimulation – this refers to seeking an ‘adrenaline rush’ or extreme excitement • Knowledge – this means being curious about your own performance, wanting to know more about it and having a desire to develop new techniques or skills to benefit performance
Extrinsic • This is when someone behaves the way they do for external reward. • There are two types extrinsic reward: Tangible & Intangible • Tangible rewards are something that can be physically given to you such as money, medals& trophies • Intangible rewards are non physical such as praise & encouragement
Extrinsic • For extrinsic motivation to work rewards need to be used effectively • If rewards are given to often it will become of little value to the athlete after a period of time • This will reduce the impact on performance
Task In what ways can extrinsic rewards effect intrinsic reward??
Achievement Motivation Theory • This was proposed Atkinson (1964) • He said motivation comes from the individuals personality & their drive to succeed • It is this drive that makes athletes carry on even when there are obstacles or failure
Achievement Motivation Theory • Atkinson grouped athletes in 2 categories: • Need to achieve (Nach) • Need to avoid failure (Naf) • Everyone has aspects of both Naf & Nach But it the difference between the two motives that makes up someone's achievement motivation.