Motivation MGT 3310
Definition • Motivation research belongs to the area of Organizational Behavior (OB) • The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal. (Baron & Greenberg, 2008) • To be motivated means to be moved to do something. (Deci & Ryan, 1999).
Purpose • (1) Why do we initiate effort on a task? • (2) How much effort do we choose to expend? • (3) Why do we persist in working at the task over time?
Basic Types • Intrinsic motivation means “doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable”. • Extrinsic motivation means “doing something because it leads to a separable outcome”. (Deci & Ryan, 1985).
Achievement Motivation Theory • All motives are learned. Those motives arranged in a hierarchy of potential for influencing behavior. The hierarchies are different among individuals. Individuals learn to associate positive and negative feelings with certain things happened around them. • Need for Achievement • Need for Power • Need for Affiliation
Equity Theory • Equity theory explained motivation process by input and outcome balance of an individual. In other words, in equity theory, people are not motivated by needs. The major motivating force is a striving for the equity of one’s effort and reward.
Expectancy Theories • If a worker sees high productivity as a path leading to the attainment of one or more of his personal goals, he will tend to be a high producer. Conversely, if he sees low productivity as a path to the achievement of his goals, he will tend to be a low producer. • Freedom to act moderates this relationship between motivation and performance
Goal-Setting Theory • In Goal-Setting Theory, motivations do not play the key role, but individual’s goal does. • Individual’s goal is the most direct determinant of his/her action. All kinds of external incentives impact an individual’s action through his/her goal. • For example: • Existent: Student get a score: B Cognition: B evaluated as too low relative to A value Standard Emotion: dissatisfaction Goal: improve on next examination to get A Action: work hard for examination preparation.
Goal-Setting Theory • Specific goals • Challenging goals • Goal commitment • Feedback
Motivation Exchange Theory • Proposed by Yundong Huang • Individuals are willing to exchange types of motivation in order to increase their overall motivation level. • There exists a rate in individual’s mind which helps them valuate types of motivation, and this rate varies among individuals. • Motivation Exchange Rate (MER) measures to what extent are individuals willing to trade one type of motivation for another.