MOTIVATION Created By Dr. J. Michael Jacobs, Professor Shepherd College Shepherdstown, WV
Motivation • The DRIVE that COMPELS a person to Complete an act • AS Motivation INCREASES so does the INTENSITY of a Person • MOTIVATED people Persist Longer at both Practice and the actual Task
Sources of Motivation • INTRINSIC – The WANT vs. the WILL. A person’s Internal desire to Achieve • BELIEVE – CONCEIVE – ACHIEVE (LT) • EXTRINSIC – External sources of Motivation i.e. Tokens, Decals, Notoriety, Fame (1972) • Co-actor (Team mate), Opponent, or Spectator
Anxiety • Performance Anxiety is not always bad (Tension, Worry, Uneasiness, or Distress) Trait Anxiety – Constant, Individual (Type A) State Anxiety – Temporary, Situational All Anxiety is based on PERCEIVED Levels of Importance or Concern
Arousal • Drive Theory> A person’s Performance = Drive (Arousal) x Habit Strength • Increased Arousal causes the Dominant Skill (Habit Strength) to be Exhibited • Inverted U Theory> There is an Optimal level of arousal for any given act, Too much or too little translates into poorer performance (163)
Guidelines of Optimal Arousal Personality – Some need More, some Less, a coach/teacher needs to be able to tap into Skill Level – Too much Arousal can cause person to REVERT to lower skill levels Task – Complex or Fine tasks require less, Gross tasks improve with more Environment – State Anxiety of the Individual
Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome • ALARM • RESISTANCE • EXHAUSTION • DEATH
Facilitory Motivation • Reinforcement – anything that strengthens a response’s potential to occur. Reinforcement is NOT feedback Presented Withdrawn Positive Negative
Motivation & Motor Behavior • Motivation in a Motor Environment is a learned condition • Achievement Motivation - (Work Ethic) is one’s effort to behave competently, to take pride in, and display excellence in, all that is attempted in spite of any adversity or level of difficulty (persisting, striving, with intensity)
The 4 Areas of Achievement Motivation • Choosing a Task or Activity to Accomplish • Striving (a measure of INTENSITY) • Persisting (Intensity in the face of DEFEAT) • Excelling (Attaining the Highest level possible)
NEED ACHIEVEMENT THEORY • People are Motivated either to Achieve Success or Avoid Failure (based on the likelihood of success in the situation or the value placed on success) • Those who are motivated toward success take pride in their accomplishment • Those who avoid failure are concerned about the shame associated with such failure • Those driven to Succeed are more Determined!
Achievement Motivation • Achievement Motivation is LEARNED in 3 Phases of Development • Autonomous Phase - Birth to 4, person is always interacting and challenging their environment • Social Comparison Phase - K and up, person compares and rates self by interaction with others • Integration Phase - Ongoing, throughout life, a dynamic combination of the first two phases • Parents can FEED or STIFLE Achievement Motivation
ATTRIBUTION THEORY • People ascribe CAUSES for their successes or failures • Most take CREDIT for their Successes • Many BLAME failure on others or situations • Many of Today’s youth have been raised on the latter with even their parents finding fault with others rather that accept the failure • This often feeds a never ending cycle of denial!
Perceived Confidence Theory • A Motivational Theory based on either Outcome Orientation or Task Orientation • Outcome - The measure of Success of this person is their ability to DEFEAT others • Task - The measure of Success of this person is their ability to better their OWN past standard
Goal Setting • Short Term Goals – Must be Realistic, Specific, Challenging, and Distinct with at least an 80% success rate, and adjustable • Long Term Goals – Must be Difficult, and Understandably longer to attain. There must, however, be a way of seeing a Positive direction toward completion (S.T. Goals)
Social Facilitation • The EFFECT a Significant Other may have on the performer. • May be Positive or Negative depending on the Relationship, Task, or Skill Level of the performer There is an Optimal Level of Arousal attached to ALL parts of Information Processing. Too little or too much can affect any area.