Motivation • Lecture #15
Haitian proverb: • If work was really good, the rich would have found a way to keep it to themselves
What Leads to Performance? • Abilities • Organizational Support • Role Expectations • Effort
Satisfaction = Motivation • Satisfaction: A person’s attitude or happiness with a situation • Motivation: A drive to perform
Satisfaction • Results in increased commitment to the organization which may or may not result in increased performance. • Increased commitment normally results in lower absenteeism, turnover, etc.
Motivation • Largely determined by the value of rewards and their contingency on performance. • An increase in motivation results in increased effort which (hopefully) in turn increases performance.
Satisfaction & Performance • NO relationship between satisfaction and performance (for people). • A contented cow may give more milk, but a happier worker is not necessarily a more productive worker.
Review of Satisfaction Studies • Over many studies, the correlation between satisfaction and performance was found to be .04 • On a scale of –1.0 to +1.0, .04 is essentially zero
Theories of Motivation • Content Theories: Focus on what arouses, energizes, or starts behavior • Process Theories: Focus on the choice factor in motivation. Why people choose a particular behavior to satisfy particular needs
Verbal Shorthand • “Motivate” • We don’t motivate anyone • We help create the conditions by which they motivate themselves
Content Theories • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Alderfer’s ERG Theory • McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Maslow • Self Actualization • Ego, Status, Esteem • Social • Safety and Security • Physiological
Alderfer • Existence related to Maslow’s first two levels • Relatedness related to Maslow’s 3rd and 4th levels • Growth : related to 4th & 5th levels
McClelland • NAch: Need for Achievement Maslow’s 4th & 5th • NAff: Need for Affiliation Maslow’s 3rd & 4th • NPow: Need for Power
Process Theories • Vroom’s VIE or Expectancy Theory • Adams’ Equity Theory • Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory
Vroom’s VIE or Expectancy • Deals with choosing a behavior that leads to attaining some reward • Represents a “slow down” in our thought process
Vroom • Valence • Instrumentality • Expectancy
Valence • Strength of a person’s preference for a particular outcome or reward
Instrumentality • Perceived relationship between performance and rewards • P R
Expectancy • Perceived relationship between effort and performance • E P
Expectancy Theory • E P R
Concert Seats Example • Effort: Time spent in line. The more time spent, the more effort exerted. • Performance: Place in line. The closer to the front of the line, the better the performance.
Concert Seats Example • Reward: Tickets for the concert. The closer to the stage, the better the reward.
Adams’ Equity Theory • Based on two premises: • We compare ourselves to others • Ifwe don’t like the results of the comparison, we take action
Adams’ Equity Theory • What’d you get?
Adams’ Equity Theory Self’s Outcomes Other’s Outcomes Self’s Inputs Other’s Inputs
Adams’ Equity Theory Self’s Pay Other’s Pay Self’s Effort Other’s Effort
If Comparison is NOT in My Favor… • Increase my outcome • Decrease my input • Decrease other’s outcomes • Increase other’s input
If Comparison is NOT in My Favor… • Change reference group or person
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory • Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement Theory • Skinner’s Theory • OB MOD (Organizational Behavior Modification)
Reinforcement Theory • Behavior is a function of its consequences
Reinforcement Theory • Reward • Punishment
Reinforcement Schedule • Continuous Reinforcement Each time a behavior occurs, the reinforcement is given • Good for learning new skills
Reinforcement Schedule • Intermittent Reinforcement • Interval (Time) • Ratio (# of Behaviors)
Interval Schedule • Fixed Pay Days
Interval Schedule • Variable Promotion Schedule
Ratio Schedule • Fixed Sales Incentives
Ratio Schedule • Variable Recognition