Motivation • Motivation is the desire and effort to make something happen. • Many businesses spend lots of time figuring out how to motivate their staff.
Benefits of increased worker motivation. Page 270 • Higher morale • Improved corporate image • People do not fight at work • Low staff turnover • Low absenteeism • Higher profits
Signs of unmotivated staff • High absenteeism • High labor turnover • High waste level • Low quality output • Increased number of customer complaints • Poor punctuality (workers are late) • Increased disciplinary problems
Types of motivation • Intrinsic motivation – when people do things because people want to do something for the satisfaction. (a student learns to speak Tai just to learn) • Extrinsic motivation – When people do something for the benefits from it. (for a salary)
Frederick Taylor's approach to employees • He said that workers always want higher pay. • Managers need to dived the workers correctly so that maximum specialization can occur. • Differentiated piecework – a payment system which gives one level of pay to all workers and a second level to very productive staff. • Taylor was one of the first to advise in the use of an assembly system to help workers specialize
Frederick Taylor's approach to employees con. • Taylor’s ideas can be hard to use in some professions like (doctors, teachers and social workers) • Some argue that people are motivated by more than money. • Taylor’s theories are still used all over the world for low skilled jobs.
Abraham Maslow’s approach to employees Workers have a hierarchy of needs which need to be considered
Physiological needs – People need to be paid so they can live • Security needs – feeling safe at a job and knowing they will have things like sick pay. • Social needs – feeling like being part of a team and being well liked • Esteem needs – Making people feel good about themselves at that the work they do is important. • Self-actualization – Helping workers reach their full potential in everything they do. Helping them to find their talents.
People who disagree with Moslow say • How to measure the levels of peoples needs? • Some workers do not even have the opportunity to take advantage of some of the ideas. • Some people continue to work after they have achieved all of Moslow’s steps so it can be unfinished.
McGregor’s theory of leadership • Theory X managers says workers are naturally lazy and do not like to work. Most managers who think like this tend to have an authoritative style. • Managers who take the theory Y approach think that workers try their best and that they take satisfaction from there work. Tend to be more democratic style leaders.
Herzberb’s approach to employees • He belives that people have sociological psychological aspects of work.
Hygiene factors to work are aspects that do not motivate but are needed to survive. • Average pay, offer job security and good working conditions are hygiene factors. • If these are not meet people lose motivation.
Motivators are psychological growth factors which help increase satisfaction and performance. • He believes workers need recognition of their achievements and like responsibility. • He believes in the democratic work response.
Three keys to worker motivation • Job enlargement – giving workers different tasks • Job enrichment – giving workers challenging tasks so they can reach their potential • Job empowerment – delegating decision making to the workers.
Movement vs Motivation • Movement is when workers feel they have to do something . • Motivation is when workers want to do something.
Managers who follow Herzberg’s theory will know better how to keep staff from being demotivated.
It can be hard to use his system with low skilled/low paid workers • Also some workers do not want job enrichment and do not want extra responsibility. • Also team working was ignored in his study.
Two kinds of motivation • Financial motivation (money) • Non Financial motivation (everything else)
Financial motivation • Wages are usually time based which is paying the workers for the hours they work. • Overtime is giving for hours that excided the normal working hours. • The advantage is it’s a simple system. • Disadvantage is that it does not pay workers who work hard extra
Piece rate • Paying employees for the work that they get done. • Advantage is that it motivates workers to work harder. • Disadvantage is that workers do not get paid if something goes wrong. • Also the workers can be scared because money is not guaranteed.
Salary • Workers are paid a set amount of money every month regardless of how hard or long they work. • It is good for jobs that it is hard to determine the amount of work people do. • Little incentive for people to work hard at a job.
Commissions • Payment passed on sales. (employees tend to receive a portion of what they sell. • Helps give workers lots of motivation. • Disadvantages - speed in production and very aggressive selling can be a hindrance. • Tasks can get vey boring for the staff. • Since staff does not know their pay they can become scared.
Profit-related pay • Employees receive a portion of the profits make by a business. • Money depends on how long people have been with a firm and how much they make. • Helps employees feel they are part of a team. • People tend to work harder to get the most money for the firm as they can.
Drawbacks – • Sometimes the employees feel that their portion is to small get them motivated. • Also the senior managers get the most money and that can make the lower workers feel unappreciated.
Performance-related pay • Performance related pay pays employees who meet objectives. • Creates real incentives to employees to create more profit for the business.
Ways that PRP can be paid284 • performance bonus – Paid to workers who meet an objective • Loyalty bonus – is paid to an employee who stays with a company for a given period of time. • Pay rise – an increase in an employee’s pay per hour, month or year. • Gratuity – paid to workers who complete there contracts.
Drawbacks of PRP284 • Targets may be unrealistic • Stress caused by the pressure imposed on workers to meet their targets • Non-financial motivators are ignored. • PRP can not always be used • May not help with teamwork
Employee share ownership schemes • Rewards workers by giving them shares of a company. • Workers will feel that now that they are owners they will work harder. • Can be impractical in large businesses. • Rewards only senior managers in many businesses.
Fringe payments • These are different payments and benefits to employees for their production in all different ways. • Examples – meals, private health insurance, housing allowance, employer contributions to retirement funds and a company cars. • Disadvantage to the company is these can be very costly.
Non-financial motivation • Is simply the use of factors to motivate other than money.
Job enrichment • Gives greater independence to workers and allows them to come up with different things to do on their own. (Vertical loading) • This can give thinking growth to workers and lead to motivation. • Drawbacks: managers must make sure jobs are not to hard. Workers can lose confidence and motivation.
Job enlargement • Giving different tasks to an employee. • Makes work less boring when people do different tasks
Empowerment • Gives workers the authority over their own jobs. • People can become motivated when they are allowed to come up with the best way to do something on their own. • Also workers feel good when they come up with a good way to do something on their own. • Workers need to have the skills to come up with their own ideas and managers need to still be held accountable.
Job rotation • Performing different tasks at the same level. (horizontal loading)
Team working • Having staff that work in groups
Examples of team working • Cell production – Team members work on a production process • Quality circles – Members meet to discuss solutions • Departmentalization teams – people are organized into function departments.
Working in groups help to make workers feel like they belong at work. • It can help to reduce absenteeism and worker turnover • Also helps workers to be flexible and they are better able to multitask and help each other.
Adair model 287 • Tasks must be challenging enough to maintain interest by individual team members. • The team must work collectively • The team must cater to the needs of each individual member.
The Adair model gives individual workers talents a good chance to be used. • This can help to have an enthusiastic group as well as help to improve the overall atmosphere of the workplace.
Belbin model • Looks at the different personality traits and behavior patterns of individuals and how best they can be used to get a job done.
Different team parts give different contributions and they also have allowable weaknesses. • A balanced team will give the best results according to Belbin’s model. • It is important to recongnize the traits of each member of the team to use them effectively.
Other non-financial motivators • Recognition and praise • Good working environment • Continuous professional development • Delegation to staff (allows workers to take credit for tasks. • Worker participation – workers help make decisions.
Non financial motivators still have a cost • Training cost money • Praise takes a managers time • Some workers are better under system management
Three types of successful motivators • Positive thinkers • People who show gratitude and appreciation • People who believe in the self-worth of their employees
Layoffs can work in both ways • Some people are motivated by the fear of a layoff • Others lose motivation because of it
In general workers tend to act as the employer treats them. • Ex. Most students behave better when they are treated like young adults rather than children