Motivation. Tutor: Leanne Clulow-Smart. Lesson Aims. To understand the attribution theory To understand the motivational views To describe & explain how to build motivation in athletes. Definitions.
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Tutor: Leanne Clulow-Smart
To say that elite athletes are highly motivated would be stating the obvious. However, to repeatedly produce the kind of high quality training sessions required for elite performance, may need high levels of motivation.
Maintaining motivation throughout a season of injuries and set backs, may be a characteristic that separates very good athletes from elite ones.
Southern City U14 rugby team who have just been beaten 66 – 0 in their opening game. When they got back to the changing room they coach asked them why they thought they had lost so badly. The first player said the ref was rubbish and had given tries that shouldn't have counted. Some said they lost because the other team was bigger than them. The next said the other team cheated.
After a little silence a player said that after the other team scored the 1st try the team stopped putting the effort in as they didn't believe they could win .
What does this case study tell you about some of the feelings and motivations of some of the players in the Southern City Team??
Motivation is an essential component of sports performance. However ,if someone is so motivated they wont stop it can cause major problems.
How you attribute success and failure can effect your future expectations on sports performance. Why do you think this is??
Participant or Trait Centered View
Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics.
The “Real Winner” or “Loser”
(e.g., needs, goals, personality).
Motivated behavior is primarily determined by situational factors.
e.g. You might all be motivated in a sporting situation but not an academic situation.
The athlete enjoys one type of training over another
Motivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and situational factors.
e.g. The interaction of personality, goals and needs and the coaches or instructor’s style
Most widely endorsed
The best way to understand motivation is to examine how the factor of traits and situations interact.
Both situations and traits motivate athletes
Athletes have multiple motives for involvement
Change the environment to enhance motivation
Leaders influence motivation
Use goal setting as effective goals can drive behaviour.
The motivational climate is the environment in which
an athlete finds themselves and how this affects their
motivation positively and negatively.
- A motivational climate that is focused on mastery
of tasks - where athletes receive positive reinforcement
and there is greater emphasis on teamwork and cooperation
– will help develop motivation through
improving the athlete’s attitudes, effort and learning techniques.
When an athlete is in an environment
where there is a lot of focus on the outcome (where
they feel they will be punished if they make mistakes,
competition is strongly encouraged and only those
with the highest ability will receive attention) this will
lead to less effort and persistence from athletes and
failure often attributed to lack of ability.
• Tasks – having a range of tasks that require the athlete to actively participate in learning and
• Authority – giving athletes authority over monitoring and evaluating their own learning and
• Reward – using rewards that are focused on individual improvement rather than comparing
levels to other athletes.
• Grouping – giving athletes the opportunity to work in groups so that they develop skills in a group based environment.
• Evaluation – focusing on an individual’s effort and improvement.
• Timing – timing activities effectively so that all of the above conditions can interact effectively.