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Motivation. Tutor: Leanne Clulow-Smart. Lesson Aims. To understand the attribution theory To understand the motivational views To describe & explain how to build motivation in athletes. Definitions.

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Tutor: Leanne Clulow-Smart

lesson aims
Lesson Aims
  • To understand the attribution theory
  • To understand the motivational views
  • To describe & explain how to build motivation in athletes

To say that elite athletes are highly motivated would be stating the obvious. However, to repeatedly produce the kind of high quality training sessions required for elite performance, may need high levels of motivation.

Maintaining motivation throughout a season of injuries and set backs, may be a characteristic that separates very good athletes from elite ones.

  • “Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals”.
  • “Motivation is WHAT drives you to behave in a certain way or to take a particular action”.
  • Motivation= Selection + Intensity+ Persistence.
attribution theory
Attribution Theory
  • Attribution – The reason you give to explain the outcome of an event
  • In sport attribution theory looks at how people explain success or failure
  • Helps us to understand a n athletes actions and motivations
case study
Case Study

Southern City U14 rugby team who have just been beaten 66 – 0 in their opening game. When they got back to the changing room they coach asked them why they thought they had lost so badly. The first player said the ref was rubbish and had given tries that shouldn't have counted. Some said they lost because the other team was bigger than them. The next said the other team cheated.

After a little silence a player said that after the other team scored the 1st try the team stopped putting the effort in as they didn't believe they could win .

case study1
Case Study

What does this case study tell you about some of the feelings and motivations of some of the players in the Southern City Team??

case study feed back
Case Study Feed Back
  • In the case study the players explained their loss using attribution
  • Attributions provide explanations for successes and failures. They fall into the following categories
  • Stability: is the reason permanent or unstable?
  • Causality: is it something that comes from an external or internal factor?
  • Control: is it under your control or not?
effects of motivation on sports performance
Effects of motivation on sports performance

Motivation is an essential component of sports performance. However ,if someone is so motivated they wont stop it can cause major problems.

positive effects
Positive Effects
  • If you are highly motivated you will play, train and perform at an optimum level and increase performance
  • It is the role of the coach and support staff to ensure the athlete is at optimum levels of motivation without experiencing any negative side effects
negative effects
Negative Effects
  • Being over motivated can cause problems by:
  • Putting the athlete under pressure
  • Make them train to hard causing a burnout and staleness making the athlete fatigued, depressed and suffer mood swings.
  • These affect not only athletes but team players, coaches and support staff
key terms
Key Terms
  • Over training – training under an excessive workload that they are unable to cope with
  • Staleness – inability to maintain a previous performance level
  • Burn Out – tries to hard to overcome failure, can lead to the athlete not wanting to compete any more
attributions task
Attributions Task

How you attribute success and failure can effect your future expectations on sports performance. Why do you think this is??

motivational views
Motivational Views.

Participant or Trait Centered View

Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics.

The “Real Winner” or “Loser”

(e.g., needs, goals, personality).

Situation–Centered View

Motivated behavior is primarily determined by situational factors.

e.g. You might all be motivated in a sporting situation but not an academic situation.

The athlete enjoys one type of training over another


Motivational Views.

Interactional View

Motivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and situational factors.

e.g. The interaction of personality, goals and needs and the coaches or instructor’s style

Most widely endorsed

The best way to understand motivation is to examine how the factor of traits and situations interact.

interactional model of motivation
Interactional Model of Motivation






  • Coach’s Style
  • Facilities
  • W-L Records
  • Style of Play
  • Personality
  • Needs
  • Interests
  • Goals

Participant Motivation

understanding why people participate in sport and exercise
  • This exercise helps you identify various motives people have for participating in sport or exercise.
  • Working in a small group, discuss the reasons that you and people you know participate in athletics or exercise.
  • What situational or personal factors influence participation?
  • What are the major motives for participation?
  • What are some of the most unusual or unique motives?
building motivation
Building Motivation.

Both situations and traits motivate athletes

Athletes have multiple motives for involvement

Change the environment to enhance motivation

Leaders influence motivation

Use goal setting as effective goals can drive behaviour.

building a motivational climate
Building a motivational climate

The motivational climate is the environment in which

an athlete finds themselves and how this affects their

motivation positively and negatively.

- A motivational climate that is focused on mastery

of tasks - where athletes receive positive reinforcement

and there is greater emphasis on teamwork and cooperation

– will help develop motivation through

improving the athlete’s attitudes, effort and learning techniques.

building a motivational climate1
Building a motivational climate

When an athlete is in an environment

where there is a lot of focus on the outcome (where

they feel they will be punished if they make mistakes,

competition is strongly encouraged and only those

with the highest ability will receive attention) this will

lead to less effort and persistence from athletes and

failure often attributed to lack of ability.

target technique
TARGET Technique

• Tasks – having a range of tasks that require the athlete to actively participate in learning and

decision making.

• Authority – giving athletes authority over monitoring and evaluating their own learning and

decisions making.

• Reward – using rewards that are focused on individual improvement rather than comparing

levels to other athletes.

• Grouping – giving athletes the opportunity to work in groups so that they develop skills in a group based environment.

• Evaluation – focusing on an individual’s effort and improvement.

• Timing – timing activities effectively so that all of the above conditions can interact effectively.