Learning Intentions • Students will be able to: • Explain the motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg & Locke • Compare & contrast these theories • Explain how these theories can be implemented in a workplace, identifying specific examples
Maslow • Maslow believed that people progressed through stages of needs. The higher needs cannot be satisfied until those lower needs are met. The five needs are:
Maslow • Maslow believed that people progressed through stages of needs. The higher needs cannot be satisfied until those lower needs are met. The five needs are: • Physiological – water & food • Safety & security • Belonging – feeling part of a wider group or community • Esteem – both of others and yourself (self-esteem) • Self-actualisation – a sense of purpose & achieving one’s potential
Herzberg’s 2 factor theory • Hertzberg asserted that needs could be divided into two groups: maintenance (‘hygiene’) needs and motivation needs. • Maintenance ‘hygiene’ needs: must be met to avoid dissatisfaction – attaining a ‘neutral’ state. • Motivation needs: must be met to achieve satisfaction.
Locke’s Goal Setting Theory Locke emphasised the importance of goal setting in motivating employees. Employees are set goals constantly – sometimes by management and some self imposed. By setting goals that are specific and challenging, HRM may be able to better motivate them. This requires sound knowledge of the employee’s skills and personal characteristics so that appropriate goals can be set.
Locke’s Goal Setting Theory • Two main factors in Locke’s theory of goal setting: • Goal difficulty: the more challenging the goal, to a certain extent, motivation will increase. • Goal specificity: having a clearly defined goal increases the probability of achieving it.
MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS • Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic is: • Money – pay and bonuses • Career paths – including promotion • Recognition of good work • Encouragement and feedback • Incentives • Team Building sessions