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America in WWI

America in WWI

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America in WWI

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  1. America in WWI

  2. By April 2, 1917, “we are glad … to fight…for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples…The world must be made safe for democracy…the right is more precious than peace.” Wilson “kept us out of war” in 1916

  3. ONLY 32,000 volunteered after war declaration • Army less than 200,000 • Not many officers had combat experience Selective Service Act • May 1917 • Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service • By the end of 1918, 24 million men had signedup By the end of the war, 2 million troops had reached Europe and 1.5 million saw combat • Most had not attended high school • 1 in 5 was foreign-born (immigrants) • 400,000 were African American The American military

  4. To build up the Navy, the US government does the following… • ***Exempted shipyard workers from the draft and deferred others to keep them working, also gave them certain benefits • US Chamber of Commerce created a publicrelations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work • Gave flags to families of shipyard workers…just like the flags given to families of soldiers • Urged people to give shipyard workers rides towork • ***Parts were built all over the nation for shipsand assembled in the yard (saves time) • ***The government took over commercial andprivate ships, and converted them for transatlantic WAR use The American Navy

  5. Heavy guards of destroyers escort merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups • By 1917, they had cut naval losses in half • US Navy lays a 230 mile barrier of mines from Scotland to Norway • Designed to keep the German U-Boats out of the Atlantic • All of these changes diminish the power of the German U-Boat attacks, thus taking away Germany’s greatest weapon The Convoy System & Naval Defenses

  6. True sons of freedom New opportunities for women & africanamericans

  7. 400,000 served in WWI • More than half served in France • Served in segregated units and were excluded from the Navy and Marines • Most were assigned to noncombat duties • 369th Infantry Regiment • All black unit in France • Two members – Needham Roberts and Henry Johnson – received the French “cross of war” (highest military honor) African Americans in WWI

  8. Women were not allowed to enlist in the Army • Women were able to join the Army Corps of Nurses • BUT denied army rank, pay, and benefits • 13,000 women accepted noncombat positions in the Navy • Served as nurses, secretaries, telephone operators • Full military rank! Women in WWI

  9. General John J Pershing (remember him???) commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF Video) • American infantrymen were nicknamed “doughboys” • New Weapons: • Machine guns • Poison gas • Tanks • Airplanes • Diesel engines Men on the Ground in Europe

  10. War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch • Food Administration – Herbert Hoover • Railroad Administration – William McAdoo • National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh Expanding the power of the national government

  11. War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch • Encouraged companies to use mass production techniques AND eliminate waste by standardizing products • Production in the US increased by 20% • Applied price controls at wholesale level, but that meant prices went UP for consumers Expanding the power of the national government

  12. Fuel Administration • Rationed gasoline and heating oil • “gasless Sundays” and “lightless nights” to conserve fuel • March 1918 – adopted Daylight Savings Time to conserve daylight • (proposed by Benjamin Franklin in the 1770s) • Took advantage of the long summer days Expanding the power of the national government

  13. Union membership goes UP • Work hours are increased • Child labor • Dangerously “sped up” production • In order to stop unions, Wilson creates the National War Labor Board in 1918 • Workers who refused to obey could lose draft exemptions • “work or fight” • Did try to improve work conditions War Economy

  14. Food Administration • Instead of rationing, Hoover encourages the following: • “gospel of the clean plate” • One day a week be “meatless,” “sweetless,” “wheatless,” “porkless,” etc • Victory Gardens • Would grow vegetables and fruits in yards and public parks Expanding the power of the national government

  15. Committee on Public Information (CPI) • The Committee on Public Information was the US’s first propaganda ministry • Speeches • movie reels • newspaper articles • posters • 4 minute men Helped make an unpopular war, popular! Selling the war

  16. Think about the following questions:1. Are these images persuasive?2. Are these images discriminatory?3. What do they say about American values?4. Who is the Audience?5. What is the tone?6. What are they trying to get you to do?

  17. Over There vs My little wet homeWhich one is a more accurate picture of the War? Over There My Little Wet Home Tone: Audience: Message: • Tone: • Audience: • Message:

  18. British on the verge of starving from the U-boat attacks • The Convoy System • All merchant ships escorted by armed destroyers • mines across North Sea to destroy U-boats • Germans could not keep up with losses to U-boats, no longer destroying as much British cargo America’s Role in WWI

  19. American Expeditionary Force led by General John Pershing (remember him?) • Doughboys , nickname American soldiers Doughboys Role in WWI • Allied powers were exhausted • American soldiers were “new blood” • Supported offensives by Allied Powers America’s role in WWI

  20. 11/11/1918 – Cease Fire – War Over The Last Straws Central Powers tired Failed German Offensive Successful Allied Offensives -New American Blood, No New Central SoldiersGerman naval strategy no longer as effective German navy revolt Population done The war ends

  21. 9 million killed • 4 empires collapsed • France, Belgium and Russia devastated by fighting • England bombed The aftermath Anthem for Doomed Youth – Wilfred Own What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?Only the monstrous anger of the guns.Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattleCan patter out their hasty orisons.No mockeries for them from prayers or bells,Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs,—The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;And bugles calling for them from sad shires.What candles may be held to speed them all?Not in the hands of boys, but in their eyesShall shine the holy glimmers of good-byes.The pallor of girls' brows shall be their pall;Their flowers the tenderness of silent maids,And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds