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America at the Outset of WWI PowerPoint Presentation
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America at the Outset of WWI

America at the Outset of WWI

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America at the Outset of WWI

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    1. America at the Outset of WWI

    2. Connection to Past Strong Proximity and connection to past experience Gettysburg 50th anniversary 1913.. 54,000 CW veterans attended Thousands living who had been born into slavery West still largely undeveloped New states: Arizona and New Mexico

    3. Progressivism Progressivism at its height Institutional changes Antigovernment bias of 19th century weakening Social changes Economic changes

    4. Transformation and Transition From producer to consumer-oriented society New consumer dimension in civic culture Pageants Democratization of consumer culture Govt parcel post system facilitates consumer culture Appeal of consumerism Some recognize dangers inherent between consumer/producer new consumer advocacy groups (National Consumers League Florence Kelley)reunite consumption and production

    5. Transformation and Transition Consumer culture also moving outward (foreign markets) Facilitated by government agencies/departments Federal Reserve Act (bank branches foreign country) Tariff Commission Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce

    6. Transformation and Transition Transitioning from rural to urban Population shifting Rural labor shortages Urban-rural tensions CLM reform rural life and institutions Liberty Hyde Bailey Extension Education Food production/distribution Scientific agriculture

    7. Transformation and Transition Old order of social authority prevailed, but Challenges to old order seen in popular amusements, modern culture

    8. Transformation and Transition Science and technological transformationbut not complete Not many own telephones Tractor use not widespread 1909 Taft horse and carriage; Wilson automobile 1913 Advances in medicine, engineering, manufacturing

    9. Transformation and Transition New cultural forms Music (ragtime) New dances Different literature Mass magazines, advertising Film (Nickelodeons) Mass amusements

    10. Music Enrico Caruso Ragtime Keep the Home Fires Burning I Didnt Raise My Son to be a Soldier

    11. Literature Carl Sandburg Chicago Poems Robert Frost Mountain Interval Einstein Relativity Frank Baum 10th Oz book Edgar Rice Burroughs The Beasts of Tarzan Ring Lardner You Know Me

    12. Literature Henri Barbusse Under Fire: The Story of a Squad Adrienne Bertrand L'Appel du sol

    13. Movies Growing in importance and cultural appeal Some tackling difficult issues (i.e., Intolerance) Movie technology improving

    14. Challenges Facing Nation High infant mortality rate Poverty Slums Unassimilated immigrants Class animosity Labor issues Urban-rural issues, including food system

    15. Challenges Facing the Nation Lack of preparedness for war Controversy: Some groups (Womens Peace Party, some Progressive interests) didnt want to prepare National Security League wanted to prepare (banking, commercial interests, big capitalists conservative interests)

    16. Challenges Facing the Nation Some preparedness proponents like NSL didnt lobby for war, but did push for measure to militarize American society Bigger Army/Navy System for universal military training Promoting patriotic education and national sentiment

    17. Challenges Facing the Nation Some saw work of NSL preparedness campaign as veiled attack on Progressive reform efforts Wilson began to shift to concept of reasonable preparedness in 1915 Wilson did submit proposals in 1915 to Congress to expand militarysaid there was no imminent threat but America must be ready to survive in a world being transformed by war

    18. Challenges Facing the Nation Reaction quick: Leading Progressives form American Union Against Militarism Some viewed preparedness movement as dangerous expression of class and national aggression Lost traction by early 1917 some saw war as idealistic crusade and opportunity to pursue reform policies (home and abroad) Some thought it would forge a stronger sense of nation, American community, elevate political and social life, unify (Lippmann, New RepublicFederation of the World) Others abandoned effort lesser of two evils Those who stayed veered to more radical organizations

    19. Challenges Facing the Nation War did wither the reform spirit one of anti-preparedness movement concerns Neutrality not easy for U.S. politically Neutrality great for business (war in Europe lifted U.S. out of recession in 1913-14, corporate profits unprecedented, Golden Age of ag)

    20. Challenges Facing the Nation Lack of military preparedness U.S. Military Power April 1916 127,588 Enlisted (133,000) 6,000 officers in Army, 14,000 in National Guard.200,000 needed 80,446 National Guard By 11/1918, 4.5 million + deployed 23.9 million registered; 2.8 million drafted (ages 21-30)

    21. Challenges Facing the Nation War Department looking for standard gun to adopt as early as 1916May 1918 before significant shipments began to arrive at the front 1916 National Defense Act passed authorizing expansion of Army to 175,000-286,000 in event of war

    22. Challenges Facing the Nation Lack of manufacturing readiness Munitions production slightly geared up (supplying mostly Allies with gunpowder/high explosives since 1914) All powder being exported how to supply American troops

    23. Challenges Facing the Nation Wilson creates a War Industries Board summer 1917 ($1/year men example of public-private partnerships institutional development outside of formal institutions) War Dept. draws up agreements with DuPont, et al, to build new plants By Armistice (1918), U.S. explosives manufacturing capacity barely 1/3 of what had been projected

    24. Challenges Facing the Nation Demographics From 1870-1920, nearly 25 million immigrants came to the U.S. From 1900 to 1920, southeastern Europe provided 3,522,000 immigrants. Italy: 3,156,000 immigrants, while Russia and Poland supplied 2,519, 000 people. Japan: 213,000. Mexico (270,000) than from France (136,000), the Netherlands (167,000) and Switzerland (158,000). Canada (921,000) supplied more immigrants than England (867,000). From 1908 to 1914, officials recorded about 6,800,000 arrivals.

    25. Challenges Facing the Nation In 1910 foreign-born men and women comprised about 53% of the national industrial labor force. In 1910 75% of the populations of New York, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and Boston were made up of immigrants and their children. In 1916 in San Francisco, 75% of the population regarded a foreign language as a primary tongue.

    26. Challenges Facing the Nation Labor Rural labor shortages Men deploying 4 million 1918 Wilson forms National War Labor Board War Labor Board allocates labor among various industries, strikes to be avoided

    27. Challenges Facing the Nation Agriculture Much being exported Not locally sustainable systems Railroad limitations Labor Overproduction Large acreage marginally farmed Tension over prices

    28. Population About 100 million 2.5 million immigrants from Germany Close to 15% of overall population immigrants Lack of unified national purpose, social cohesion Fear

    29. American Census 1910

    30. Woodrow Wilson Elected 1912, 28th president Intellectual and idealist History professor and political scientist President of Princeton Thoroughly incorruptible, reform-minded Governor of New Jersey

    31. Woodrow Wilson Elected on platform of Progressive reformand delivered Introduced income tax, lowered protectionist tariffs, enacted Fed Reserve Act, reformed currency and banking law, strengthened anti-trust legislation Regulated working conditions for sailors Created Fed Farm Loan Act Labor reform

    32. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Committed U.S. to policy of absolute neutrality U.S. participated indirectly in war (trade) Germanys unprovoked declarations of war on France and Russia impossible to justify Germanys violation of Belgian neutrality hard to swallow (and propaganda inflamed public opinion against Germany)

    33. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Germans now portrayed as Huns

    37. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Trade begins to really focus on Allies (moral revulsion, cultural affinity, good business sensehigh demand, gold, favorable shipping, geography) Germany continues to outrage U.S. Bombs civilian London Poison gas at Ypres Unrestricted submarine warfare against commercial shipping!!!

    38. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Rights as neutral nation was freedom of the seas War of 1812 American firms had done $2B in business with Allies; U.S. banks made 2.5B in loansfate of American economy tied to Allied victory! Lusitania sinking May 1915 Wilson protests Arabic sunk in August

    39. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Kaiser orders some restrictions on sub operations to avoid pulling U.S. into conflict London sends Edward House to Europe to pursue idea of U.S. mediation to end war Wilson offers to mediate again Germans suspect collusion between U.S. and Allies peace overtures collapse

    40. Wilsons Neutrality Policy Peace Without Victory Germany resumes unrestricted sub warfare 2/1/1917 Wilson severs diplomatic relations with Germany 2/3 after U.S. warship Housatonic is torpedoed and sunk

    41. Moving Toward War 2/26/1917 Wilson asks Congress for authority to arm U.S. merchant vessels (armed neutrality) 1917 Zimmerman Telegram German gamble that time to mobilize American troops would enable them to win war Germany underestimated American will and industrial/economic capacity

    42. Moving Toward War German Foreign Minister Alfred Zimmerman Pull America into war with Mexico and Japan, diversion Capitalize on breach between U.S./Mexico Telegram falls into hands of British, give it to Wilson, who publishes it

    43. Safe for Democracy German refusal to respect U.S. neutrality and the Zimmerman telegram make it impossible for Wilson to avoid war. Other reasons, as well. Business interests Feeling/affinity for France/England Popular opinion

    44. Safe for Democracy 4/2/1917 visits Congress to ask for Declaration of War Approved 4/6/1917 Idealistic speech partnership of democratic nations against a natural foe to libertya fight forthe ultimate peace of the world. The world must be made safe for democracy.

    45. Safe for Democracy We desire no conquest, no dominion. Held true to that ideal. Think what they are applauding. My message today was a message of death to our young men.