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  1. Motivation Chapter 7 IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  2. Learning Objectives • Define and understand the nature of motivation • Explain major content and process theories of motivation and how culture influences their application • Discuss how culture influences rewards • Explain how the meaning of work in different countries influences motivation • Consider ways of developing cross-cultural motivation systems IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  3. Motivation • The amount of effort that an individual puts into doing something • Willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  4. Types of Motivation Theories • Content Theories • What employees want from work or reasons to work • Process Theories • How to get there or alternative ways to get there IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  5. Content Theories • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Safety and Security Physiological IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  7. Critics about Maslow’s Heirarchy • What are some major features of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? • How this model may be culturally linked? • E.g., the meaning of self-actualization • The content and hierarchical order • Are there significant statistic support domestically or cross-culturally? IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  8. Hygiene Factors Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary Relationships with peers Security Motivation Factors Achievement Recognition Interesting work Responsibility Advancement Growth Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  9. Critics about Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Job satisfaction versus dissatisfaction • As two separate scales • As equivalence of motivation • Research methodology • Contribution to the practical field • Problem solving • Job redesign • Cross-cultural findings IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  10. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory • Need for Achievement • Need for Power • Need for Affiliation IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  11. Critics about McClelland’s Three Needs Theory • Role of training and support • Link to effective managers and entrepreneurs • Cross-cultural findings, e.g. • U.S. • Japan • Russia IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  12. Chinese Social Motivation and Leader Effectiveness 7. Leader fitness for multidimensional development 6. Social altruism 5. Self-actualization to the benefit of collectivity 4. Social awareness 3. Safety with group harmony and family support 2. Work ethics and life goal priority 1. Social Acceptance IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  13. Conclusions about the Content Theories • Each restricts explanation of motivation to a particular set of factors • Largely based on the U.S. culture • Lack of conclusive research support • Valuable starting point for examining cultural and individual differences in motivation IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  14. Process Theories • Reinforcement Theory • Goal Setting Theory • Expectancy Theory • Equity Theory IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  15. Reinforcement Theory • Giving a reward/reinforcer increases the likelihood a behavior will be repeated • Ignoring behavior increases the likelihood that it will not be repeated • Punishment usually puts an immediate end to a behavior but does not guarantee it will stop in the long run IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  16. Goal Setting Theory • Higher performance can be achieved by • Setting goals that are specific, rather than vague • Difficult, but achievable, rather than easy or too risky • Giving timely feedback, rather than no or delayed feedback • Effectiveness of theory depends on • Commitment to goal • Self-efficacy • Cultural orientation IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  17. The Expectancy Model of Motivation Instrumentality E P Expectancy Perceived probability of successful performance, given effort P O Expectancy Perceived probability of receiving an outcome, given successful performance Second-leveloutcomes, each with valence First-leveloutcomes, each with valence Outcome D Outcome A (extrinsic) Outcome E Effort Outcome B (extrinsic) Performance Instrumentality Perceived probability of a first-level outcome leading to a second-level outcome Outcome C (intrinsic) Motivation is expressed as follows: M = [E ® P] å[(P ® O) (V)] IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  18. Equity Theory OutcomesselfOutcomesother InputsselfInputs other • Equity related concepts • Distributive justice versus procedural justice • Comparing with a significant other • Underpaid versus overpaid employees • Rebuilding the equilibrium by behavioral or cognitive adjustment IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  19. Conclusions about the Process Theories • More effective than content theories in explaining motivational constructs that can apply globally • Must consider cultural variations to enhance the applicability of a particular model • Achieve a deeper level of analysis and allow for individual differences IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  20. Culture and Rewards • Individual versus group • Masculine versus feminine • Gifts versus rewards for performance • Individual preferences within cultures • Gender • Age • Marital status IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  21. Organizational Reward Practices • Appropriate rewards can be motivating • Circumstances may change preference • Non-cash rewards popular in some companies • European companies using more variable compensation and flexible benefits • Companies can develop rewards that are unique to their business and cultural environment IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  22. The Meaning of Work Study • Work centrality • Japan • U.K. • Saudi Arabia • Societal norms about working • Entitlement • Obligation • Work goals IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  23. Importance of Work Goals IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  24. Popularity of U.S. business education leads to an emphasis on U.S. motivation theories. Global corporations desire to develop consistent policies and practices worldwide. Application of U.S. motivation theories is not equally effective across cultures. Global corporations need to develop adaptable systems that are consistent and also effective in motivating people across cultures. Convergence or Divergence? IBUS 681, DR. Yang

  25. Implications for Managers • Choosing an universal approach to motivation is virtually impossible. • Process theories appear more promising than content theories. • It is imperative to understand people who work for you in order to develop and implement an appropriate motivation system. IBUS 681, DR. Yang