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Chapter 1. Overview of the Research Process. Learning Objectives. Explain the steps in the research process Describe the basic components of each step Use the steps as an organizing mechanism for a research project . What is Research?.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Overview of the Research Process

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Explain the steps in the research process
  • Describe the basic components of each step
  • Use the steps as an organizing mechanism for a research project
what is research
What is Research?
  • Research is a systematic process based on the scientific method that facilitates the identification of relationships and determination of differences in order to answer a question.
statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem
  • The proportion of obese American youth is increasing at an alarming rate
  • An unusually high number of young men with rare opportunistic infections are being seen in New York and California clinics
  • Children in rural areas of China have elevated blood lead levels
  • Mine-workers in Sub-Sahara Africa have higher than expected incidences of tuberculosis
generating a hypothesis formulating a research question
Generating a Hypothesis/Formulating a Research Question
  • An increasing prevalence of electronic entertainment contributes to the increase in obesity among American youth
  • What do the young men with rare infections have in common with one another?
  • What are the potential environmental causes of lead poisoning among Chinese children?
  • Occupational lung irritation among miners in African contributes to the risk of tuberculosis
reviewing relevant studies information
Reviewing Relevant Studies/Information
  • Participating in the scientific method
  • Helps to refine the hypothesis or research question
  • Suggests specific study design choices
  • Indicates what would be new to the current knowledge
collecting data
Collecting Data
  • Selecting Subjects
    • Individual people
    • Groups of people
    • Published research results (for meta-analysis)
  • Measuring Constructs
    • Survey questions
    • Lab results
    • Effect sizes
  • Preparing data for Analysis
analyzing data
Analyzing Data
  • Specifically testing the hypothesis or answering the research question
  • Particular method of analysis depends on
    • Research question!
    • Study design
    • Type of subject
    • Level of measurement of constructs
reporting results
Reporting Results
  • Research report
  • Thesis/capstone/dissertation
  • Peer-reviewed journal article
  • Presentation/poster
  • Results should be disseminated in some manner so that they can contribute to the scientific method