The Lost Colony • In 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh received Queen Elizabeth’s approval for a plan to start a new colony in Virginia. • He sent an expedition of three ships carrying more than 100 men, women and children • They arrived at Roanke Island, off the coast of what is now North Carolina. • The area was ideal for farming.
The Lost Colony • The colonists decided that they needed more supplies, so they sent the governor, John White, to return to England for aid. • A war broke out between England and Spain, so relief could not be sent to Virginia for two years. • It was too late. When sailors landed they found only the remains of an abandon settlement. • No one was ever found and they become known as the Lost Colony.
Virginia • In 1606, King James I granted a charter to a group of adventurers called the Virginia Company. • They established the first permanent English colony in North America, calling it Jamestown after the king.
Jamestown, Virginia • The local aboriginal peoples taught the new settlers how to grow tobacco, which gave the new colony income
Jamestown, Virginia • The leaders of the company began to argue, so the English government took over. • Virginia became England’s first royal colony. • The company recruited indentured servants. • The company paid for your voyage • You signed a contract to work for the company for 7 years • Once you served your contract, you could apply for land, which was guaranteed
Jamestown, Virginia • Once an indentured servant got their land, they were given 50 acres for every settler that they brought out to the colony at their own expense (after 1624)
Jamestown, VirginiaGovernment • At first the Virginia Company rules exclusively • In 1619, a council was appointed, consisting of members from the company as well as 22 representatives or burgesses (2 from each of the 11 areas of the colony) • The House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly.
Jamestown, VirginiaWomen • In 1619, the company recruited young girls to come over. • They would pay for their voyage and guarantee them a husband. • Men paid the company 150 pounds of tobacco for a wife.
Newfoundland • In 1616, Captain John Mason went to NFLD to govern a settlement started by London and Bristol merchants. • He took over Cupid’s Cove on Conception Bay • Other settlements were established along the coast. • In 1619, Mason returned to England and wrote a book entitled A briefe discourse of the New-found-land. This was probably the first book written about NFLD. • He listed 4 reasons why NFLD was as good as Virginia: • 1. Close to England • The fish trade is an important commodity • Cheaper to bring settlers to NFLD than Virginia • Better chance of protection from enemies. Few Natives an dice protects them in the winter.
Newfoundland: Government The Admirals’ Rule • In 1634, King Charles I issued what has been called The Western Charter. It gave control of NFLD to English merchants and their captains and established an unusual form of government for England’s oldest colony in America. • People who lived year-round in NFLD were not allowed to engage in the fishery. • Some regulations of this government were: • The captain of the 1st ship to enter any harbour in the spring shall be admiral of the harbour for the year. • All owners of ships trading with NFLD are forbidden to carry any passengers who intent to settle in NFLD
Newfoundland: Government • Under this system, the admirals and their friends could treat the settlers however they wished. • They could burn houses or take their boats and equipment. • The settlers often bribed the admirals with money, food and rum for protection. • In 1676, Charles II issued more rules: • Settlers are not permitted to cut any wood or plant within 6 miles of the shore • Settlers were not allowed to use fishing wharves before the arrival of ships from England • No fisherman shall remain behind after the fishing season • The admiral shall take any offenders back to England for punishment.
Newfoundland: Government • Nevertheless, Newfoundlanders remained. • The king ordered these people to move back to England or the West Indies. • He gave fishing admirals the right to destroy all settlements. • But they stayed and built new homes. • In 1699, King William III and the English government gave up and passed the first Newfoundland Act. • This law recognized their right to be there. • It stated that: • The settlers could use any wharf or fishing premise that had not been used by English ships in 15 years. • It gave any settler the right to complain to the captain of an English warship against any unfair treatment by a fishing captain
Settlement of Massachusetts • Settled during the time of the Reformation • By law, the people of England were required to belong to the Anglican Church. • Some criticized it as being too much like the Catholic Church. • People who wanted to have more of a Protestant church were known as dissenters. • One group of dissenters were known as the Pilgrims. • They left England and lived in the Netherlands for a few years until they joined an expedition to the New World
Settlement of Massachusetts • The Pilgrims sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 • They started the first permanent settlement in New England at Plymouth, on Cape Cod • They learned how to grow cops form the Natives. • In 1621, they celebrated their first Thanksgiving Day.
Settlement of Massachusetts • In 1691, they joined with the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which was settled by the Puritans • The Puritans were not separatists, but rather wanted to purify the church. • John Winthrop led the group to start a new colony in America. • By 1640, the population of the Massachusetts Bay Colony was 20,000. • Soon after Maine and New Hampshire developed. Then Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Scotland’s First colony • Nova Scotia got its name from the 17th century poet, Sir William Alexander. • He convinced James I of England (formerly James VI of Scotland) that there should be a New Scotland. • In 1621, Sir William Alexander was given a charter and a grant to all the lands between St. Croix River and the Gulf of St. Lawrence (today, all the Maritime Provinces)
Scotland’s First colony • Sir William sent ships to Nova Scotia over the next two years. • However, Sir William found himself with little to show except a large debt, as there were too few colonists to attempt settlement. • King James offered to grant the title of baronet and a portion of land in New Scotland to any Scot that would pay a sum of money to Sir William.
Scotland’s First colony • King James died, but Charles I set up a committee to look after the arrangement. • His instructions included symbols which became the flag and coat of arms of NS. • By 1629, a number of baronets paid and went to NS. Sir William set up a settlement at Port Royal. It last 3 years. • In 1632, Charles I signed a treaty with France agreeing to have all his subjects to leave NS. • In return, the King of France promised to pay a debt owed to King Charles. • Sir William remained for another 10 years.
The Building of Halifax • The colonists of New England wanted protection. • They were being attacked by raiding parties of New France. • Natives were offered rewards for English scalps by the French. • Pirates terrorized British ships • When Louisbourg was returned to New France, the English colonists were promised protection from a new English fortress called Halifax.
The Building of Halifax • On July 12, 1749, a new governor and 2500 English settlers arrived at the new fortress. Edward Cornwallis • The harbour was to be the main base for the powerful British settlement.
The Building of Halifax • Halifax needed farmers to produce food, carpenters to build homes and merchants to provide supplies. • The first group of 2500 settlers had been attracted by an offer of free food for a year. • They had been poor city people who had no skills on the frontier. Many slipped away to the more established colonies. • They were replaced by New England colonists who were experienced on the frontier. • Other settlers were attracted from Germany – farm families • By 1752, 400 people lived in the town.
The Building of Halifax • Halifax was worried of raids by the aboriginals. • In the first year, a crew by a sawmill were killed. • A French priest, Le Loutre. • When the Seven Years’ War was declared in 1756, Halifax was ready. • They received 23,000 soldiers and sailors who were preparing an attack on Louisbourg and later Quebec City.