New England By Danielle Lapointe, Samantha Cohen, Lauren Chorniak, Adam Strachan, and Michelle Briffett
New England Maine Vermont New Hampshire Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island
Puritan Versus Separatist Beliefs Both: • Anglican Church= Roman Catholic Church Puritans: • Wanted to reform Anglican Church Separatists: • Wanted to create a new church
Dissenters Dissenter- “One who refuses to accept the doctrines or usages of an established or a national church, especially a Protestant who dissents from the Church of England.”
The Pilgrims • 1607 Holland Religious Freedom • Wanted to keep religion, culture, and language • 1619 London CompanyVirginia
The Mayflower • September 1620 Virginia • Storm set them off course to Massachusetts • Mayflower Compact
Puritan Massachusetts King Charles 1 Who is he?? In the 27th March 1625 he became king of England as well as Scotland and Ireland. He was power hungry and always struggled for power with the parliament. Many in England feared that he was trying to get absolute power.
Puritan Massachusetts King Charles 1 King Charles controlled religion and made changes to the church of England. In particular however, he oppressed the Puritans.
Puritan Massachusetts Puritan Puritan is anyone seeking purity of religion and doctrine. Starting in the 16th and 17th century England, these people rejected the reformation of the Chuch of England. If the people could not locate biblical authorization they rejected the teaching thus being called a Puritan.
Puritan Massachusetts Puritan ministers were deprived of their pulpits. King Charles would not supply them with the needs to support the religion. So the Puritan ministers turned to American to get their equipment. Pulpits are the small elevated platform that clergies stand on to read the bible.
Puritan Massachusetts The Puritan ministers were not going to give up. They were determined to get their pulpits. So, a few prominent Puritans bought a trading company. They changed the name of the company from “Dorchester Company” to “Massachusetts Bay Company”. They then secured a charter directly from the king. They needed to be independent of the King in order to practice their cult. The agreement was signed by 12 members of the church, led by John Winthrop, in 1629 in Cambridge. A “charter” is a written agreement of rights, an immunity or and exemption.
Puritan Massachusetts After signing the Cambridge agreement, they immigrated to New England. This “Massachusetts Bay Company” was the only Chartered colonization companies not subject to the control of the governors in England.
Puritan Massachusetts • Although this business was set up to trade, it turned almost immediately to religion. This was the beginning of a Christian society that believed was the “lighthouse for all the world”. Puritans from all over sailed to Massachusetts. In 1630, arrived 17 ships with 1000 puritans. Over the next 10 years over 20000 settlers arrived. Towns such as Dorchester, Boston, Roxbury, Watertown and Charlestown were filled with people.
Puritan Massachusetts JOHN WINTHROP • 12th Jan 1587- 26th March 1649 Governor of Massachusetts. Emphasized the Christian society created in Massachusetts would be a lighthouse for all the world and a beacon of hope. “we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.”
Puritan Massachusetts Congregationalists Congregation: a group of people who adhere to a common faith and regularly attend a church. The Puritans organized their churches under ministers elected by each congregation created. The Puritans compared themselves to the Anglican Church, however compared to the Anglican Church, the Puritan ministers had less authority.
Puritan Massachusetts Anglicanism: churches with historical connection with the church of England. Unlike the Anglican church, the members of the Puritan church had the final say in the church decision.
The First Thanksgiving • In 1621 the survivors elected Bradford as governor • After planting crops and receiving a good harvest in the fall as well as provisions on the ship; Fortune, thanksgiving was inspired • Characterized by the colonies ability to endure and strength of religion thanksgiving continues to prosper
Rhode Island • In 1631 Roger Williams arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony, where he became pastor of a church in Salem • He challenged ideas about church and state connection, Native land rights, and Puritan leaders roles in land rights • He was banished and in 1936 he started the colony of Rhode Island • The colony (chartered in 1644) welcomed Jews and Christians. • Church and state were separated-this played an important part in the history national politics
Congregationalists: A Protestant denomination that has roots in the Nonconformists of England. The Congregationalists are much like the Methodists in their teachings. They consider the individual congregation the basic unit of their church, and they practice baptism of infants. Most Congregationalists in the United States belong to the United Church of Christ.
Commonwealth: a group of sovereign states and their dependencies associated by their own choice and linked with common objectives and interests: the British Commonwealth.
The Congregationalist is a form of Protestant Christianity which asserts the principle that a local congregation is completely autonomous under God and therefore should not submit to any outside, human authorities such as a regional or national synod of elders. Because Congregationalism occupies a much humbler place in the configuration of Christianity today, it is easy to forget its prominence and significance in Victorian England. Likewise Congregationalism was not as numerically significant in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
From Trading Company to Commonwealth: • The shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Charter voted to move the company from England to Massachusetts. • John Winthrop took the charter across the Atlantic into New England where the shareholders would have more freedom from the control of the king. • Winthrop transformed the Massachusetts Bay Company into a the first commonwealth. At the beginning the few shareholders ran the colony as free men, but soon 100’s of colonists wanted to be called free men in the company. • So rules changed and members from each town elected 2 representatives to the general court (government of the commonwealth)
The First Year’s Hardships • By spring of 1620 half of the Pilgrims had died due to starvation • The Squanto of the Pawtuxet people was a native that taught the Pilgrims about how to deal with their new land, which helped the rest survive. • William Bradford said the Squanto “directed them how to set their corn, where to take their fish and how to produce other commodities.”
Squanto • Squanto was a Patuxet Native American Indian, as well as British slave, • He helped the Pilgrims after their first winter in New England. • Squanto helped the Europeans even though he was kidnapped and enslaved in Europe.
More Settlers Arrive • More settlers came from England a built smaller villages near Plymouth. • This colony of small villages never became large and it was self governed. • In 1691 it became a part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in New England.
New Settlements • Anne Hutchinson challenged Puritan Ministers on their “interpretations” of the bible. • She was ordered to leave the colony and then moved to Rhode Island and began the settlement of Portsmouth. • 1637- Reverend John Wheelwright was also ordered to leave Massachusetts for criticizing Puritan ruling. He moved on to settle New Hampshire
Anne Hutchinson • July 1591 – August 1643 • the unauthorized Puritan minister of a discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands • key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry. • State of Massachusetts honors her with a State House monument calling her a "courageous exponent of civil liberty and religious toleration.”
New Settlements • In 1679 New Hampshire received a charter from King Charles II. • Other pilgrim settlers were pushed into Maine which was North. • Maine was a part of Massachusetts until 1820
Thomas Hooker • Puritan Minister • Led people to more freedom and land in 1636 to the valley of the Connecticut River. • By 1639 these valleys joined together and formed a colony and adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. • This constitution was the FIRST written constitution ever in America. • Constitution=the system of fundamental principles according to which a nation, state, corporation, or the like, is governed
Who Wants to be a New England Pilgrim? Two Teams… 10 Questions… One Winner…
The following state is NOT in modern day New England… • New Jersey • Vermont • Connecticut • Maine • A puritan is... • Someone who only farms on “pure” or good quality land • Someone who left England because of the poor quality of water • Someone who seeks purity of religion and doctrine • A member of a Non-Christian group in the 1600’s • 7. The Pilgrims immigrated to this country before New England… • Ireland • Scotland • Denmark • Holland • 6.This holiday originated in New England… • Summer Vacation • American Thanksgiving • Victoria Day • Halloween 3. The Flag of the Commonwealth Nations is… $ • 4. The Congregationalists are a form of… • Roman Catholic Christianity • Protestant Christianity • Greek Orthodox Christianity • Government • 5. In 1621 ______ was elected governor… • Bradford • Washington • Abraham • Rhode • 2. King Charles the First was the King of… • England • Ireland • Scotland • All of the above • 9. Maine was apart of Massachusetts until… • 1621 • 1820 • 1720 • 1721 a) • The Squanto is… • An Aboriginal Spirit/ God • A Patuxet Native American • A man they found fishing for squid • The first Metis child b) c) D C A B The correct answer is….