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New England

New England . The Colonial Empire Grows . How it all Began . Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther --1517 Breaks from Catholic Church Faith determine salvation –denounce authority of the Pope . Calvin . Elaborated on Luther Calvinism Institutes of Christian Religion– 1536

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New England

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  1. New England The Colonial Empire Grows

  2. How it all Began • Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther --1517 • Breaks from Catholic Church • Faith determine salvation –denounce authority of the Pope

  3. Calvin • Elaborated on Luther • Calvinism • Institutes of Christian Religion– 1536 • Original sin – weak and wicked • Predestination == “the elect” went to heaven • “good works” sacraments –wont get you there • Did not act immoral • “conversion experience” and become “visible saints” models for the community

  4. Puritans • Form Church of England --- Henry 8 • Puritans – • Protestants seeking to reform the Anglican • How • Remove anything Catholic

  5. Pilgrims • Separatist • Extreme group of Puritans • Break church all together • James I – threaten his leadership wants them out • First wave – go to Holland • Why • Religious freedom • Jon Robinson leader –un happy with “Dutchification”

  6. Pilgrims • What do the Pilgrims want ???? • Practice religion without as Englishmen without interference • Where will they go • VA company – • Pilgrims agree to work 7 years in return for support • Profits of VA Co will be shared among settlers and investors after 7 years

  7. Arrival • Settle outside the domain of VA –New England • Mayflower – 102 people and fewer than half were Separatist • “hijacked” the ship and gained consents of non separatists by issuing Mayflower Compact • Settlers became “squatters” • No legal right to land and no government (no charter from crown)

  8. Plymouth Plantation • Pilgrims drew up the Mayflower Compact, t • first government of colonial New England • – The compact was like the church covenant, except • that it established a civil government and professed • allegiance to the king. • Compact is not a Constitution but an agreement

  9. Mayflower Compact • Purpose: Legitimize Pilgrims Settlement • Created a secular document • James I – King –created a body of all settlers with power to devise laws and elect leaders • Would later merge with Massachusetts Bay Colony • Seed of Democracy – • Agreement for a majority rule among settlers

  10. Mayflower Compact and Survival • Adult Male Settlers—excluding servants • Make laws and conduct open discussions • No One left—despite ½ died first winter • Thanksgiving– 1621– • Alliance with Natives is formed – • Corn cultivation and where to fish • Wampanoag's and pilgrims agree to protect each other • Corn provides survival and Pilgrims adopt custom of giving thanks • Peace will last 41

  11. Success of Pilgrims • Developed economy –fur trade, fishing and lumber • Religion paramount • William Bradford – leader – • Distribute land among settlers to encourage farming • 1691 merge with Massachusetts Bay Colony –7,000

  12. Massachusetts Bay Colony • • 1629, a group of Puritan merchants obtained a • grant of land in New England • Why were they unhappy --- • Charles I had dismissed Parliament and sanction anti-Puritan persecution • – sought to create a refuge for Puritans, and exploit wealth of America • Cambridge Agreement --- served as colonies constitution for many years

  13. Massachusetts Bay Colony • • 1630, 17 ships,1,000 people (mostly families) left • England for Massachusetts • – The Great Puritan Migration the largest single migration of its kind in the 17th • 15,000 come to New England – turmoil • • Puritans who settled Massachusetts shared many • of the Pilgrims' beliefs, but were not separatists. • – Wanted to reform, not break away from English Church

  14. Civil War in England • English Civil War end migration (1642-1649) • Stay to fight Royalists forces • Take over the Government • Oliver Cromwell leader • Behead Charles I

  15. Puritan Government • • John Winthrop named first governor of the colony– • Covenant Theology –Puritans had a covenant with God • Religious experiment in New World • – definition of "freemen" was soon changed to include all male citizens, not just the stockholders

  16. Puritan Government • • By 1644, a bicameral legislature was established: • – a lower House of Deputies • – an upper chamber consisting of the governor and his council • Winthrop was a strong leader • Massachusetts=most influential and biggest of New England Colonies

  17. Religion in Massachusetts • • In every town, the community church had • "complete liberty to stand alone," • – Not bound to Anglican hierarchy or ritual • • Each congregation chose its own minister and • regulated its own affairs—Congregational church • • Ministers worked closely with government • – Ministers had no formal political power, but exerted great influence on church members

  18. Religion in Massachusetts • • Only church members could hold government office • – Government protected the ministers, taxed members • and non-members alike to support the church, and • enforced the law requiring attendance at services

  19. Government • Open to all Free Adult Males (2/5) population • Belong Puritan congregation • Congregational Church • Non Religious men and women =no voting • Town hall meeting --- democratic • Allowed all male property holders to vote and publically discuss issues • Votes were decided by majority

  20. Government • Purpose : enforce God’s laws • Only Puritans could be Free Men • Visible Saints • Free men elected Governor and his assistants • And a representative assembly called GeneralCourt • Winthrop hated Democracy and distrusted Non Puritians

  21. Government • Church – Congregationalists “established church” • Everyone paid for the government church • Dissenters were punished • New England least tolerant

  22. Church Leadership • Interrogated people claiming to have the “conversion” experience • John Cotton defended government duty to enforce religious rules • Devoted Puritan • Clergymen were not allowed to hold office • Congregation =hire and fire ministers • Cambridge Agreement/Platform – makes the Congregational Church uniform throughout New England

  23. Roger Williams • • Williams a controversial young Puritan minister • – a Separatist • – proclaimed that the land the colonists occupied belonged to the natives NOT THE KING • – advocated sexual equality • “Liberty of Conscience” • Civil government can not regulate religious behavior • State could punish crime– Church did religious discipline • can not force people to go to church • Challenged the basis for Massachusetts Bay government

  24. Williams • • “Wall of Separation” • Colonial government considered Williams a • dangerous man and voted to deport him • – escaped before they could send him back to England • • 1635-1636, he took refuge with the Narragansetts-- • – 1636, he bought a tract of land from them, and with a few followers, created the town of Providence

  25. Rhode Island • • Williams advocated complete freedom of worship • and denied government any authority over • religious practice. • • 1644, he obtained a charter from Parliament • empowering him to establish a single government • for the various settlements around Providence • – Rhode Island

  26. Rhode Island • • Based government on the Mass. pattern, but • did not restrict the vote to church members • nor tax people for church support. • • For a time, Rhode Island was the only colony in which all faiths (including Judaism) could worship • without interference– no oaths required, no compulsory attendance • 1644 given a charter --

  27. Anne Hutchinson • Emigrated to Mass. in 1634 • 1635, began to hold Sunday prayer discussions after church • argued that only grace, not works, proved salvation —antinomianism • She was tried by the Church and found guilty of heresy, sedition and role reversal • Told that, “You have rather bine a Husband than a Wife, and a Preacher than a Hearer, and a Magistrate than a subject.”

  28. Anne • “elect” did not need to obey God’s law or man’s law because they were predestined • Claimed direct revelation from God –heresy • Could have been political – she opposed present leadership

  29. Halfway Covenant • • To address this problem of declining church • membership, in 1662 the “Halfway Covenant” • was adopted by Puritan churches • – allowed adults who had been baptized, but who had not • themselves experienced conversion, to have their • children baptized. • • 1691, Mass. granted "liberty of Conscience," • allowing all Protestants to worship as they chose • – Anglicans and Baptists eventually won exemptions • from paying taxes to support the Puritan Church

  30. 2nd generation Puritans • Will baptize anyone • Distinction between elect and other subsided • Women make up a larger % of congregations

  31. Salem Witch Trails • This will symbolize decline of Puritan clergy • Massachusetts suffer political, religious, military upheaval will = paranoia • Belief that devil works through witches • First --- girls that listened to voodoo tails began acting strange • Witch hunts = to reign of terror for older women • Accusers were young and poor -western part - they accused more prosperous women in eastern part • 20 • Cotton Mather – clergy supported this and weaken

  32. Connecticut • • 1635, Thomas Hooker, led his congregation out • of Mass. to establish the town of Hartford. • – 1639, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut established • • New Haven was established by Puritans upset • with what they considered the increasing religious • laxity in Massachusetts. • Want strict and close church and government alliance

  33. Connecticut • – Fundamental Articles of New Haven (1639) established • a Bible-based government even stricter than that of Massachusetts Bay. • • New Haven remained independent until 1662, • when it came under the control of the Hartford colony, renamed Connecticut

  34. Connecticut • Fundamental Orders – • 1639 New Connecticut River Colony • First Modern Constitution • Established democracy—controlled by wealthy • Government is based on the consent of the people

  35. New England Confederation • Mass Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, New Haven • Peqout War – • Collective security was essential for defense • We want them out– • Puritans used bible passages to justify • Formed in response to war • First milestone on road to colonial unity • Why • England is in Civil War--- colonies have to defend themselves • Exclusively Puritan

  36. King Phillips War • New England Confederation war with Indian Cheiftan –King Phillip • 52 of 90 Puritan towns will be attacked 13 destroyed • Colonist will win = sale Indians into slavery to Bermuda – King Phillip will be beheaded and it will be displayed 20 years • Bloodiest war ever fought , Natives are removed from confederation, • Beginning of American identity – no help from England

  37. Now What??????? • Charter will be revoked –Charles II • Royalists and Church upset • Puritans hope for church destroyed • MBC revoked 1684

  38. Dominion of New England • Mercantilism ==there to make $ for Crown • Goals –wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficient • 1685 Lords of Trade create Dominion of New England Goal to unite --all colonies from Nova Scotia to Delaware River under one government • Purpose ---trade with non English colonies and allies are forbidden –Navigation Law • Colonial defense against Indians, Dutch and French

  39. Dominion of New England • Navigation Act – forbids trade with non Brits • Sir Edmond Andros– • Colonist hate him – • He is Anglican, • Forbids town meetings, land titles revoked • Heavy restrictions on courts, press and schools • Taxed people without consent • Enforced the navigation acts --

  40. England’s Glorious Revolution • Trigger the first American Revolution • James II dethroned (Catholic) • Replaced by Mary (Protestant) and William of Orange • Constitutional Monarchy in place –cant tax without out consent of parliament • News hit colonies and they oust Andros send him back • Dominion of New England collapses – No more Navigation Acts

  41. Questions to Consider • What Political and religious circumstances in England led to the formation and development of New England • How did religion play a role in the development of New England • How did New England differ socially, politically, economically from South • How did Puritanism lead towards democracy

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