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Warm Up

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Warm Up

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  1. Warm Up • Write three hypotheses that you could research using an observational study in a fast food restaurant. • I’m sorry 

  2. Prework for study • write the following for each hypothesis: • 1. What would you have to measure in this experiment? (ie: overweight/normal, male/female, number of bites, number of items ordered, amount of food left, number of chews, amount of time spent eating) • 2. How would you measure this? (count and record, tally, stopwatch?) • Star the hypothesis you wish to use, and raise your hand for me to check.

  3. Warm-Up • Define learning in your own words. • How do you know if learning has occurred? • Do you think that learning can happen by accident or does it have to be intentional Explain your answer. OBJ: SWBAT identify and describe the process of classical conditioning. Relevance: Today we are learning about this because classical conditioning is one of the main ways people acquire knowledge about the world around them.

  4. DOL: On a piece of paper answer the following • 1. What is my hypothesis? • 2. Why do I think this? • 3. What are my variables? • 4. How am I going to measure these? • 4b: what materials do I need to bring with me? • 5. Who is my population? • 6. Who is my sample? • *You may take a picture of this on your phone to refer to, and then immediately put your phone back away.

  5. Learning • Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that arises from practice or experience • According to cognitive psychologists: • learning may be a mental change • Does not have to be a change in behavior • Learning we will study: • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Latent Learning • Observational Learning

  6. Video • We are going to watch a short video. • Answer the following questions: • What did Pavlov originally want to study? • Why wasn’t he able to find exactly what he wanted? • Explain how classical conditioning can be called natural learning. What conclusions did Pavlov come to concerning classical conditioning?

  7. Classical Conditioning It all started with: Ivan Pavlov

  8. What is classical conditioning? • Classical conditioning: When your brain and nervous system make an association between 2 stimuli (thing). • Example: food and a bell • A song and making out with your “friend”

  9. Vocab-Terms to know Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response. Unconditional Response (UCR): the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.

  10. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with the UCS, comes to trigger a response. Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

  11. Neutral Stimulus (NS) a stimulus which initially produces no specific response other than provoking attention. When with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus.

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  13. video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI

  14. Break it down • What is the NS, UCS, UCR, CS, CR?

  15. Examples • Every time someone flushes a toilet in the apartment building, the shower becomes very hot and causes the person to jump back. Over time, the person begins to jump back automatically after hearing the flush, before the water temperature changes. • Unconditioned stimulus • Hot Water • Unconditioned Response • Jumping back • Conditioned Stimulus • Toilet Flush • Conditioned response • Jumping back to toilet flush alone

  16. Examples • You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. • Unconditioned stimulus • flu • Unconditioned Response • nausea • Conditioned Stimulus • New food • Conditioned response • Nausea to smell of new food

  17. Warm Up 1/24 Explain Classical Conditioning in your own words.

  18. Examples • 5.  An individual receives frequent injections of drugs, which are administered in a small examination room at a clinic. The drug itself causes increased heart rate but after several trips to the clinic, simply being in a small room causes an increased heart rate. • Unconditioned stimulus • Drug • Unconditioned Response • Increase in heart rate • Conditioned Stimulus • Waiting room • Conditioned response • Increase heart rate to new waiting room

  19. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat. • Unconditioned stimulus • Drug • Unconditioned Response • Increase in heart rate • Conditioned Stimulus • Waiting room • Conditioned response • Increase heart rate to new waiting room

  20. Think/Pair/Share • What is an example of classical conditioning that you have seen before in your lives. • Write in your notes

  21. John Watson conducted an experiment with a boy named Albert in which he paired a white rat with a loud, startling noise. Albert now becomes startled at the sight of the white rat. What are the following? Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned response

  22. Extinction Extinction- a procedure in which stimuli lose their ability to evoke responses because the events that followed the stimuli no longer occur example: bell without the trigger of food; if a child learns to associate the sound of a car pulling in a driveway with the sound of their mom coming home, they may establish a response of joy. If the parent begins taking the bus, and the only sound of a car pulling in a driveway is that of their neighbors (not followed by entrance of the mom, then the CR of joy to the sound will eventually go away

  23. extinction What do you think would happen if a day or two after extinction, the tone was sounded again?

  24. Spontaneous recovery The recurrence of an extinguished response as a function of the passage of time

  25. Little Albert / Generalization Read the half sheet on the famous Little Albert experiment Little Albert was only conditioned to fear rats. Yet, he grew to fear ___________. -he did not learn to fear these, he showed generalization Generalization- In conditioning, the tendency for a CR to be evoked by stimuli that are similar to the stimulus which the response was conditioned (people can show a learned response to something similar to the CS)

  26. Discrimination • Discrimination- the tendency for an organism to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not forecast an unconditioned stimulus (ie: Little Albert could have discriminated against the other white objects with training) • Circles and Squares before food

  27. Counterconditioning One complaint with the Little Albert experiment, is that he was not counterconditioned. Counterconditioning- a fear reduction technique in which pleasant stimuli are associated with fear-evoking (fear causing) stimuli so that the fear-evoking stimuli lose their aversive (avoidance-causing) qualities

  28. Counterconditioning Example: Little Albert given cookies, a bunny in the corner of the room. Eventually the bunny could get closer and closer until eventually the bunny could be in Little Albert’s lap while he eats cookies (fear gone) **This would be systemic desensitization. Flooding- fear evoking stimuli presented without actual harm. Presented all at once.

  29. Bell and Pad treatment • For children who do not wake up to the sensation of bladder tension, this treatment can work: Child is given a special sheet When child wets bed, a circuit closes, and a bell goes off. Bell wakes child Eventually the Stimulus of a tight bladder wakes the child **This shows that classical conditioning can be learned without someone knowing Think-Pair-write-share: What is the UCS? UCR? CS? CR?

  30. DOL 1. What is extinction? What process happens for extinction to occur? 2. Explain what spontaneous recovery is? 3. Compare generalization and discrimination. 4. How might Watson have counterconditioned Little Albert? Be specific.

  31. business Grade checks Star stickers

  32. Warm-Up • Write a definition for: • Counter Conditioning • Flooding • Systematic Desensitization . • Give an example of how each of these could be used to overcome a fear. OBJ: SWBAT identify and describe the process of operant conditioning. Relevance: Today we are learning about this because operant conditioning is one of the main ways people acquire knowledge about the world around them.

  33. Warm-Up • Write a definition for: • Counter Conditioning • Flooding • Systematic Desensitization . • Give an example of how each of these could be used to overcome a fear. OBJ: SWBAT identify and describe the process of operant conditioning. Relevance: Today we are learning about this because operant conditioning is one of the main ways people acquire knowledge about the world around them.

  34. What is Operant Conditioning? • Operant Conditioning - The theory that behaviors are a result of reinforcements and punishments.

  35. Is this experiment realistic? Do you think it could work? What could you change to make it better?

  36. Reinforcer Any event that STRENGTHENS the behavior it follows. Two Types of Reinforcement: Positive and Negative

  37. Reinforcement – an event that increases the probability that a response will be repeated (**increases behavior) • Positive Reinforcement – giving something good to increasea behavior • Negative Reinforcement – taking away something bad to increase a behavior • CFU: Provide an example of positive and negative reinforcement. Reinforcement

  38. Positive Reinforcement Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response.

  39. Negative Reinforcement Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus.

  40. Punishment • Punishments- Reduce behavior • positive punishment –(passive avoidance) giving something bad to reduce a behavior • negative punishment – (omission training) taking away something good to reduce a behavior • CFU: Provide an example of positive and negative punishment.

  41. The following are examples of what??? Answer choices are: 1. positive punishment 2. negative punishment 3. positive reinforcement 4. negative reinforcement

  42. Spanking a child for writing graffiti on your car door.

  43. Giving candy for correct answers.

  44. Taking away cell phone privileges because of low grades.

  45. Stop jamming toothpicks up one’s fingernails in exchange for information

  46. Reading 1 Read Schedules of Reinforcement on page 250-251. Write down 3 main ideas as you read.

  47. Shaping A procedure in Operant Conditioning in which reinforcers guide behavior closer and closer towards a goal.

  48. Reading 2 • Read Interval Schedules on pg. 251. • Write down 3 main ideas.

  49. Reading 3 Read Ratio Schedules on pg. 251-252. Write down 3 main ideas.