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Mitosis. Biology I G/T. Why do cells divide?. To make a new organism Growth Repair Replacement of normal cell loss Development. Structure of the Mitotic Chromosome Showing Sister Chromatids, Centromeres, and Spindle Fiber Attachment. Chromatid – ½ of a chromosome

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Mitosis
Mitosis

Biology I G/T


Why do cells divide
Why do cells divide?

  • To make a new organism

  • Growth

  • Repair

  • Replacement of normal cell loss

  • Development


Mitosis
Structure of the Mitotic Chromosome Showing Sister Chromatids, Centromeres, and Spindle Fiber Attachment

Chromatid – ½ of a chromosome

Sister chromatid – each half of the same chromosome

Centromere – complex of proteins attached to DNA holding the sister chromatids together


Stages of mitosis
Stages of Mitosis Chromatids, Centromeres,

S Stage

Interphase


Interphase
Interphase Chromatids, Centromeres,

Animal Cell

Interphase is not part of mitosis – it is the time between cell divisions

Interphase includes G1, S, and G2

During interphase the cell is doing its normal metabolic activities like protein synthesis

The cells are performing their duty as part of a tissue

The DNA duplicates to get ready for mitosis

The DNA is in chromatin form

Plant Cell


Prophase
Prophase Chromatids, Centromeres,


Prophase1
Prophase Chromatids, Centromeres,

Animal Cell

The chromatin begins to condense into chromosomes and become visible in the nucleus

The nuclear membrane begins to break down

Centrosomes duplicate, form spindles, & move to the poles

Spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes begin moving

Plant Cell


Metaphase
Metaphase Chromatids, Centromeres,


Metaphase1
Metaphase Chromatids, Centromeres,

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

The chromosomes are lined up down the equator by the spindles


Anaphase
Anaphase Chromatids, Centromeres,


Anaphase1
Anaphase Chromatids, Centromeres,

Animal Cell

The sister chromatids separate at the centromeres

Each chromatid (now called a chromosome) heads to the pole of the cell

Plant Cell


Telophase
Telophase Chromatids, Centromeres,

http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Telophase1
Telophase Chromatids, Centromeres,

Animal Cell

The chromosomes are completely to the opposite poles

New membranes start to form around the DNA

The chromosomes begin to decondense back to chromatin

Cytoplasm begins to pinch in animal cells and a cell wall begins to form in plant cells – This is cytokinesis

Plant Cell


Mitosis

After Chromatids, Centromeres, telophase is complete, the cells reenter interphase and go about their normal business

The DNA is totally decondensed, new nuclei reformed, and there are totally 2 new cells

Interphase


Differences plant vs animal cell mitosis
Differences Plant vs. Animal Cell Mitosis Chromatids, Centromeres,

Cytokinesis in a plant cell

Plant cells do not have centrioles in their centrosomes but animal cells do ?????

Plant cells cannot pinch in due to the cell wall – a new cell wall forms down the middle from the endoplasmic reticulum

Plant cells divide slower due to having to reform the cell wall

Cytokinesis in an animal cell


Mitosis quiz animal cells
Mitosis Quiz – Animal Cells Chromatids, Centromeres,

Interphase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Interphase

Prophase

Telophase


Mitosis quiz plant cells
Mitosis Quiz – Plant Cells Chromatids, Centromeres,

Metaphase

Telophase

Anaphase

Interphase

Prophase

Interphase

http://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/benham/mitosis/