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Mitosis PowerPoint Presentation

Mitosis

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Mitosis

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  1. Mitosis

  2. Fig. 12-2 Why do cells divide? 20 µm 100 µm 200 µm (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development (c) Tissue renewal

  3. Fig. 12-3 20 µm

  4. Fig. 16-21a Chromatin Packing Nucleosome (10 nm in diameter) DNA double helix (2 nm in diameter) H1 Histone tail Histones DNA, the double helix Histones Nucleosomes, or “beads on a string” (10-nm fiber)

  5. Fig. 16-21b Chromatin Packing Chromatid (700 nm) 30-nm fiber Loops Scaffold 300-nm fiber Replicated chromosome (1,400 nm) 30-nm fiber Looped domains (300-nm fiber) Metaphase chromosome

  6. Fig. 12-4 0.5 µm Chromosomes DNA molecules Chromo- some arm Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Centromere Sister chromatids Separation of sister chromatids Centromere Sister chromatids

  7. Fig. 12-5 INTERPHASE S (DNA synthesis) G1 Cytokinesis G2 Mitosis MITOTIC (M) PHASE

  8. Fig. 12-6b G2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Chromatin (duplicated) Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Early mitotic spindle Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere Aster Nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore microtubule Nucleolus

  9. Table 6-1a 10 µm Column of tubulin dimers 25 nm Tubulin dimer  

  10. Fig. 12-6b G2 of Interphase Prophase Prometaphase Chromatin (duplicated) Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Early mitotic spindle Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere Aster Nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore microtubule Nucleolus

  11. Fig. 12-7 Aster Centrosome Sister chromatids Microtubules Chromosomes Metaphase plate Kineto- chores Centrosome 1 µm Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore microtubules 0.5 µm

  12. Telophase and Cytokinesis Metaphase Anaphase Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming Centrosome at one spindle pole Spindle

  13. Fig. 12-8b Chromosome movement Kinetochore Tubulin Subunits Motor protein Microtubule Chromosome

  14. Telophase and Cytokinesis Metaphase Anaphase Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming Centrosome at one spindle pole Spindle

  15. Fig. 12-9 Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell 1 µm 100 µm Cleavage furrow Cell plate New cell wall Daughter cells Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) BioFlix: Mitosis

  16. Fig. 12-11-1 Cell wall Origin of replication Plasma membrane E. coli cell Binary fission in bacteria Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin

  17. Fig. 12-11-2 Cell wall Origin of replication Plasma membrane E. coli cell Binary fission in bacteria Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin Origin Origin

  18. Fig. 12-11-3 Cell wall Origin of replication Plasma membrane E. coli cell Binary fission in bacteria Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin Origin Origin

  19. Fig. 12-11-4 Cell wall Origin of replication Plasma membrane E. coli cell Binary fission in bacteria Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin Origin Origin

  20. Fig. 12-11-4 Cell wall Origin of replication Plasma membrane E. coli cell Binary fission in bacteria Bacterial chromosome Two copies of origin Origin Origin How do bacteria ensure their chromosome gets into the daughter cell without a mitotic spindle?

  21. Exploring binary fission with Briana Burton How do bacteria ensure their chromosome gets into the daughter cell without a mitotic spindle? • Sigma factor only expressed in forespore. • So cfp and yfp only expressed when gene is physically in the forespore.

  22. Watching chromosome movement

  23. Genes required for chromosome movement

  24. How is chromosome pulled into forespore?