The Process of Cell Division Mitosis
Parts to a Cell Cell Membrane- a double layer of phospholipids that keeps the cell together Cytoplasm- the fluid inside every cell and its organelles Cell Membrane Chromatin Nucleolus Nuclear Membrane- similar to a cell membrane, and surrounds the nucleus of every cell Nucleolus- the control center for the cell, which contains DNA Chromatin- unraveled chromosomes (DNA) Nuclear Membrane Cytoplasm
Homologous Chromosome Vocabulary Chromosome Kinetocore Centromere Tetrad Sister Chromatid
Interphase The cell grows to double its size (G1 phase) to compensate for division. The centrioles divide as the DNA doubles.
Prophase The nuclear membrane and the nucleolus gradually dissipates over the phase. The centrioles move to the poles of the cell as the chromatin condenses into chromosomes.
Metaphase The chromosomes line up at the equator of the cell. The centrioles now expel thin strands, called spindle fibers, which attach to the kinetocore of the chromosome. Once attached, the spindle fibers are called polar fibers.
Anaphase The spindles retract, ripping the chromosomes apart.
Telophase The polar fibers dissipate.
Telophase The chromatids gather as the nuclear membrane and the nucleolus re-appear Now, the chromatids uncoil into chromatin again.
Telophase Slowly, the cell starts to split apart. Cleavage Furrow
Cytokinesis The cell has now separated from one cell into two
Interphase (again) The cycle begins again when the cells start to grow.