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  1. Chapter 1 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizational Behavior the study of individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  3. What is an Organization? A structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives. What objectives are we interested in and why? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  4. Organizational Behavior: Dynamics in Organizations Psychosocial Organizational Behavior Interpersonal Behavioral © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational Variables that Affect Human Behavior Communication Organizational Structure Performance Appraisal Human Behavior Work Design Jobs Organizational Design © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  6. ExternalPerspective Understand behavior in terms of external events, environmental forces, and behavioral consequences. Internal Perspective Understand behavior in terms of thoughts, feelings, past experiences, and needs. Explain behavior by examining individuals’ history and personal value System. Explain behavior by examining surrounding external events and environmental forces. Both perspectives have produced motivational & leadership theories. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  7. Kurt Lewin Behavior is a function of both the person and the environment (system). B = f (P/E) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  8. Your explanationfor the behavior that you observe (caused by a combination of person and environment factors) is critical because it determines your reactionto the behavior, and the thing you control the most at work is your ownpersonal behavior. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  9. Sociology the science of society Psychology the science of human behavior Engineering the applied science of energy & matter Interdisciplinary Influences on Organizational Behavior Medicine the applied science of healing or treating diseases to enhance health and well-being Anthropology the science of the learned behavior of human beings Management the study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  10. Components of an Organization Task–an organization’s mission, purpose, or goal for existing People–the human resources of the organization Structure–the manner in which an organization’s work is designed at the micro level; how departments, divisions, and the overall organization are designed at the macro level Technology –the tools, knowledge, and/or techniques used to transform inputs into outputs © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  11. Process Inputs Outputs S U P P L I E R S C U S T O M E R S A process is a series of related tasks; A system is a group of related processes © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  12. Time for an exercise? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  13. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  14. Total Process materials methods supervision measurement equipment 15% Individual effort training staffing

  15. Sterman (1994) • “When we attribute behavior to people rather than system structure, the focus of management becomes the search for extraordinary people to do the job rather than designing the job so that ordinary people can do it.” © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  16. Grade distribution Spring 2012 • A = 11 (48%) • A- = 3 (13) • B+ = 3 • B = 4 • B- = 1 • C = 1 • D = 0 • F = 0 How do you explain the fact that 61% made an A? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  17. Hawthorne Studies: studies conducted during the 1920’s and 1930’s that suggested the importance of informal organizations Formal vs. Informal Organization Formal Organization–the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system Informal Organization–the unofficial and less visible part of the system © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  18. Formal organization (overt) Goals and objectives Policies and procedures Job descriptions Financial resources Authority structure Communication channels Products and services Formal & Informal Elements of Organizations Social Surface Informal organization (covert) Beliefs and assumptions Perceptions and attitudes Values Feelings, such as fear, joy anger, trust, and hope Group norms Informal leaders © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  19. Total Quality Management (TQM) The total dedication to continuous improvement and to customers so that customers’ needs are met and their expectations exceeded. Who is the customer? How do you know their expectations? How do you know if you are meeting their expectations? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  20. [QUALITY] • Can give organizations in viable industries a competitive edge in international competition • A rubric for products and services of high status • A customer-oriented philosophy of management with implications for all aspects of organizational behavior • A cultural value embedded in successful organizations © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  21. Three key questions in evaluating quality-improvement ideas 1. Does the idea improve customer response? 2. Does the idea accelerate results? 3. Does the idea raise the effectiveness of resources? © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

  22. Seven Categories in the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examination • Leadership • Information and analysis • Strategic quality planning • Human resource utilization • Quality assurance of products and services • Quality results • Customer satisfaction © 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.