The Age of Jackson A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger/
Democracy in Theory and Practice • Democracy shows how American institutions were suppose to work • Jacksonian Democracy truly meant the vote of the people • Self made men could now rise to positions of power – social ranks start to disappear. • Key Point – Equality of opportunity, not equality of reward – what does this mean?
The Democratic Movement • Democracy means white male suffrage • Martin Van Buren built a statewide political organization in NY, believed in the two party system- they were a check on the temptation of the abuse of power • 1828 – Presidential electors were chosen by popular vote instead of state legislatures. • During the Jacksonian era, the two parties were the Whigs and the Democrats
Politics • Party disputes arose over corporations, tariffs, banks, internal improvements, and conspiracies against American liberty and equality. • Jacksonians believed that money and power endangered the survival of Republicanism. • Others believed the rabble rousers would pass legislation contrary to national beliefs. • How is this relevant to today?
More Politics • What is the role of the Federal Government? • Should it take steps to improve economic growth, or should it destroy special privilege or corporate monopoly? • Laissez faire – free competition – became one thought which divorced the government from active participation
Unions Emerge, Civil Movements Grow • Working men parties and trade unions emerged in the 1830’s. They condemn the gap between the rich and the poor. • First labor strike – the General Trades Union of the City and County of Philadelphia – creates the 10 hour work day. • Women’s Movement and Abolitionist Movement – increased the equal rights movement. • Jacksonian America – racism and male chauvinism • Declaration of Independence did not extend to women and African Americans. • The Age of Common Man saw the deterioration of women and black rights.
Discussion • How does equality tie into society in this time period? • How does industrialization create social class distinction? • How does the medical field, and legal field, change under Jackson? • How does the role of religion change? • How do hotels and theatre’s influence American culture in this time period? • How was literature and art affected by the spread of democracy?
Jackson and the Politics Democratic • AJ SYMBOLIZED democracy • Election of 1824 • End of Monroe’s 2nd term, Republicans were in disarray – could not choose a candidate • William Crawford – selected by party caucus • John Quincy Adams – favored by Monroe • Andrew Jackson – nominated by local leaders of Tenn. • John Calhoun sought the VP, and Henry Clay missed the final three • AJ got the popular vote, but not the electoral vote • Decision goes to the House of Reps – H. Clay supports Adams – gives him the needed votes. Adams gains presidency and Clay becomes his Sec. of State • AJ followers called this the Corrupt Bargain
AJ Strikes Back • JQ Adams had a difficult presidency • Refused to bow to public opinion and called for expansion of federal activity • Advocates of state rights, and strict constructionism were aghast • 1826 – Congress opposed JQ Adams – this was favored by AJ • The issue was tariffs. • Manufacturers and farmers favored tariffs • Southern farmers opposed tariffs • Therefore, those who supported AJ felt safe supporting the tariff to swing voters to AJ. (These are some of the first special interest groups in U.S. History!) Also called Logrolling (in the political language…) • Tariff of Abominations
AJ Comes to Power • Election of 1828 • AJ supporters rally around the corrupt dealing of Adams-Clay • John C. Calhoun (VP) spoke of the states and their rights • Sen. M.V. Buren dominated NY politics, through the political machine called the American Regency, attacked Clay and his American System (High Tariffs and internal improvements) • Kentucky editors Blair and Randal worked in the West against Clay • They laid the base for the Democratic Party and the beginning of Mass Democracy • Election Techniques • Public Rallies, Parades, Picnics • Mudslinging dominates the campaign – AJ attacked Adams personally, Adams accused AJ’s wife of bigamy and adultery • AJ Advantage • Portrayed as a man of the common people, military hero and Native American Fighter • He was land rich and a slave owner • Adams was a rich northerner • AJ wins popular vote by 150,000 and 2-1 electoral
President, or King, Jackson? • Political Supporters favored state rights and limited government. • AJ strongly supported removal of Native Americans, but up to this point he took a stand on tariffs, banks, and internal improvements. • AJ was a forceful and domineering President • Strong will and proud • Intolerance to opposition • He fought duels and served in wars against the Spanish, British, and Native Americans • AJ – Spoils System • Defended the removal of the government officials and replaced them with his supporters – AJ stated that this is the Democratic Doctrine • Men of intelligence qualify themselves for office • Midterm AJ reorganized his entire cabinet
Native American Removal • AJ favors relocating west of the Mississippi River – wants to expel Native Americans quickly • Greatest obstacle to expansion was the Cherokee Nation • They refused to leave – they had a republican government, literacy, and agricultural society • The U.S. government Native American policy was called Civilization of the N.A. – thought this could not be accomplished in areas surrounded by whites – they needed to be moved. • AJ – Native Americans were children when they did the white man’s bidding – savages when they refused. • AJ’s Policy • Deny Cherokee autonomy • Promote State Rights over Native American Affairs • Speedy Removal • Removal Bill was passed (close vote, but had Southern/Western border state support) • 1833 – All tribes were moved minus the Cherokees • 1838 – Cherokee forced to Oklahoma with military threat • Trail of Tears – 4,000 – 13,000 died • This exposed the prejudice side of Jacksonian democracy
Nullification Crisis • Southerners were fearful of encroachment on state rights. • VP Calhoun led state rights insurgency, abandoned his support of nationalism, and the American System. • Wrote a nullification anonymously – states have the right to nullify federal law • AJ opposed nullification – a threat to the Union • Federal power needs to be in check, but states can not be completely sovereign • 1832 – it was voted to nullify the tariff – S.C. would forbid the collections of custom duties within the state. • AJ pondered military action against South Carolina – Nullification was treasonous • Congress enacted a Force Bill – President may use military powers • Clay helps to create a compromise on the Tariff – lowering the tariff yearly. • S. Carolina vote to nullify the Force Bill – will not tolerate Federal action – an along with tariffs, slavery was in question
The Bank War • AJ will attack the National Bank because it brought opposition • Shows the government’s relationship to national finances • Panic of 1819 • Bank extended credit freely • Suddenly called in loans • Criticisms of the National Bank • Establishment of the bank was unconstitutional • Placed power in the hands of a few • It was a chartered monopoly • 1828 – Historian Robert Remini stated the bank was a colossus that: • Controlled the nation’s economy • Controlled state banking • Regulated Currency • Threat to small producers • It possessed great power and privilege without being under control
Bank Veto and Election of 1832 • AJ was not familiar with economic policy – felt that bank branches used influence against him in the election. • Thought that an attack on the Bank would provide a party issue. • Bank president, Biddle sought a charter for the bank, and Clay thought AJ took the unpopular side. • However, the move to re-charter the bank fired up AJ and his supporters and he vetoed the bank bill. • AJ asked the common people to help him defeat the “monster” corporation – 1st political message to use more than a constitutional argument. • Election of 1832 – AJ vs. Clay • AJ wins in a landslide victory • Defeats the bank and places holdings in 23 state banks • Some view that AJ went beyond his authority as president in doing this. Senate tried to pass a motion of censure.
Whig Party vs. Democrats • The censure resolution provided the nucleus for a new party – The Whigs. • Founders – H. Clay and Daniel Webster • The name was chosen because of its English – American roots in opposition to royal power. • Major issues – banking and anti – AJ, currency • The rivalry of the Whig and Democrats made the two party system a normal feature • Allegiance to party became a source of identity • Whigs stood for a positive liberal state: government had a rights and duty to protect enterprises and contribute to economic growth • Industrialists, merchants, farmers, planters = market economy • Democrats – negative liberal state – hands off government • Small farmers, workers, declining gentry = rich vs. poor • Party loyalty was established by: Religious and ethnic identities and lifestyle. • Whigs = Protestant Churches • Democrats = Catholics, Lutherans, or no church at all.