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Warm-Up. What were you most surprised by when looking at the fast food nutritional facts and watching SuperSize Me ?. Managing Weight and Body Composition. Lesson 24. Objectives. Examine the relationship between body composition and fitness

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warm up
  • What were you most surprised by when looking at the fast food nutritional facts and watching SuperSize Me?
  • Examine the relationship between body composition and fitness
  • Examine the relationship between maintaining a healthy weight, health promotion and disease prevention
  • Describe healthful ways to manage weight
  • Indentify behavior that will enhance and maintain personal health throughout life
  • Develop a plan for managing a personal healthy weight
  • Describe the risk of fad diets and other weight loss strategies
  • Describe the causes, symptoms and treatment of eating disorders
  • Identify the presence of an eating disorder as a situation requiring assistance from professional health services
  • Identify professional health service available to help those with eating disorders
  • Examine the differences between accurate and inaccurate information regarding nutrition
performance nutrition
Performance Nutrition
  • Best eating plan for athletes is one that is balanced, moderate and varied
  • Your body’s needs for protein, vitamins and minerals does not change dramatically when training, however because physical activity burns calories, athletes and other active individual need to eat more calories from nutrient-dense foods to maintain their weight and energy levels when training
  • Body naturally loses fluids through perspiration, breathing and waste elimination
  • Fluid loss increases during physical activity, especially in hot weather
  • Fluids must be replaced to avoid dehydration and heatstroke
    • Dehydration can lead to an imbalance of electrolytes
      • Minerals that help maintain the body’s fluid balance
        • Sodium, chloride, and potassium are all electrolytes
  • You must take in as much water and electrolytes that you lose “rehydration”
    • Drink 16-24 ounces of fluids 2 to 3 hours before a heavy workout and 6-12 ounces of fluids every 15-20 minutes during heavy workouts
    • Best to drink plain water to replenish fluids lost during exercise
making weight
“Making Weight”
  • Losing Weight
    • Competing in a weight class that is below your healthy weight zone can be dangerous
    • Fasting, crash dieting, or sweating off extra weight before weight ins can cause dehydration
    • Over time, such practices may also lead to a loss of muscle mass
  • Gaining Weight
    • A program that combines balanced nutrition and exercise is the healthful way to gain weight
    • Supervised weight lifting program can help build muscle mass
    • Extra calories you need for gaining weight should come from nutrient dense foods, not from protein supplements
    • Slow weight gain of no more than 1-2lbs per week is recommended
    • Anabolic steroids or other body building drugs in NOT healthy
eating before competition
Eating Before Competition
  • Eating 3-4 hours before competition allows the stomach to empty yet gives an athlete the necessary energy and keeps him or her free from hunger pangs while competing
  • Choose a meal that’s high in carbohydrates and low in fat and protein, both which stay in the digestive system for a longer period of time
    • Pasta, rice, vegetables, bread and fruits are good sources of carbohydrates
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Vegetarian: a person who eats mostly or only plant foods
    • Religious reasons
    • Cultural reasons
    • Concern for environment
  • By cutting out the saturated fats and cholesterol found in many animal products vegetarians may reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and some cancers
  • Consuming more fruits, vegetables and whole grains is also linked to a reduced risk of many health problems
meeting nutrient needs
Meeting Nutrient Needs
  • Need to eat a variety of incomplete proteins in a way that will yield complete proteins over the course of the day
  • Need to get enough iron, zinc and B vitamins which are often found in animal products
dietary supplements
Dietary Supplements
  • Non-food form of one or more nutrients
  • May contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, or herbs
  • Supplements can be in a pill, capsule, powder or liquid form
  • Eating healthy meals and snacks based on the Food Guide Pyramid can provide you with all the nutrients your body needs
  • A multivitamin may sometimes be appropriate
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements may be recommended for older adults, pregnant or nursing women, people receiving certain medical treatments and those recovering from illness
risks of dietary supplements
Risks of Dietary Supplements
  • Megadose
    • Very large amount of a dietary supplements
    • Can be very dangerous
    • Vitamins A, D, E and K are stored in body fat and may cause toxicity if taken in large amounts
  • Herbal supplement
    • Chemical substance from plants that may be sold as a dietary supplement
    • Often sold as “natural”
      • Safety and nutritional claims of these products are not based on conclusive scientific evidence
nutrition during pregnancy
Nutrition During Pregnancy
  • Developing fetus depends on its mother for all its needs
  • Folate/ Folic Acid
    • Can prevent spinal defects in the developing fetus
    • Sources include fruits, dark green leafy vegetables and fortified grain products
  • Iron
    • Increased blood volume during pregnancy produces and increased demand for this mineral
    • Found in meat, poultry, fish, dark green leafy vegetables and enriched grain products
    • Helps build and renew hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying compound in blood cells
  • Calcium
    • Helps build bones and teeth of the developing fetus
    • Replaces calcium taken from the mother’s bones
    • Found in dairy products, dark green leafy vegetables, canned fish with edible bones and fortified cereals and juices
nutrition for infants and young children
Nutrition for Infants and Young Children
  • Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants
  • If not possible, fortified formulas will provide the baby with the nutrients he/she needs
  • Through the first year, formula is supplement with a variety of solid foods
    • Starting with cereal grains, then fruits and vegetables and then meat or poultry
  • After the first year, many parents substitute whole milk for formula or breast milk
    • Fats in whole milk provide essential nutrients for a child’s developing nervous system
  • Between a child’s 2nd and 5th birthday parents should gradually replace whole milk with low or non fat milk to meet the calcium and vitamin D needs while reducing fat intake
nutrition and older adults
Nutrition and Older Adults
  • Usually the same as younger adults
  • However, certain health problems may change the nutritional needs
  • Some medications interfere with nutrient absorption, so dietary supplements may be needed
body image
Body Image
  • The way you see your body
  • Affected by several factors
    • Media images
    • Friends
    • Family
  • Often died to perception of weight
    • Remember, your own healthy weight probably won’t be the same as a fashion model, body builder or your best friend
weight calorie connection
Weight-Calorie Connection
  • Calories are used to measure energy
    • Energy in food and energy you body uses for life processes and physical activities
  • Maintaining weight is a matter of energy balance
    • The calories you consume must equal the calories your body burns (calories in=calories out)
      • If you take in fewer calories than you burn you will lose weight
      • If you take in more calories than you burn you will gain weight
  • Review:
    • Fats: 9 calories per gram
    • Proteins: 4 calories per gram
    • Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram
  • Even small amounts of fat greatly increase calorie content
calories continued
Calories Continued…
  • One pound of body fat equals 3,500 calories
    • Eating 500 fewer calories a day would result in the loss of 1lb in a week
    • Burning an additional 500 calories a day would result in the loss of 1 lb in a week
determining appropriate weight range
Determining Appropriate Weight Range
  • Influenced by several factors
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Height
    • Body frame
    • Growth rate
    • Metabolic rate
    • Activity level
body mass index bmi
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • A ratio that allows you to assess your body size in relation to your height and weight
  • Different charts used for males and females, because age and gender need to be taken into account
  • Figure 6.1 pg 146
body weight vs body fat
Body Weight vs Body Fat
  • Overweight: condition in which a person is heavier than the standard weight range for his or her height
    • Does not mean you are unhealthy! Muscle mass must be taken into account
  • Obesity: an excess amount of body fat
    • This is always bad for your health!
health risks of being overweight
Health Risks of Being Overweight
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Cancer
  • High blood pressure
  • Osteoarthritis
  • 14% of teens are overweight!
    • Strains muscle and skeletal system
    • Forces heart and lungs to work harder
  • A condition in which a person is less than the standard weight range for his or her height
  • Some teens are very thin while they are growing
  • Could be normal because of genetics or a fast metabolism
  • However, other people diet or exercise excessively in order to stay thin
    • Problems:
      • Little stored fat to supply the body with energy
      • Person may be consuming too few calories, decreasing their ability to fight illness
healthy ways to manage weight
Healthy Ways to Manage Weight
  • Target your appropriate weight
    • Speak with a health care professional to determine a weight range that is healthy for you
  • Set realistic goals
    • Gaining or losing ½ lb to 1 lb per week is a safe and realistic goal
  • Personalize your plan
    • Think about your food preferences and your lifestyle when designing your program
  • Put your goal and plan in writing
    • May also find it helpful to keep a journal of what and when you eat
  • Evaluate your progress
    • Weigh yourself
    • Take measurements
    • Pay attention to how clothes are fitting
healthy weight loss strategies
Healthy Weight Loss Strategies
  • Eat enough calories to meet your body’s daily needs (roughly 1700-1800)
  • Include your favorites in moderation
  • Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient dense foods
    • Foods that are high in nutrients as compared with their calorie content
      • Whole grain products, vegetables, fruits
  • Drink plenty of water
healthy weight gain strategies
Healthy Weight Gain Strategies
  • Increase your calorie content
    • Foods high in complex carbohydrates
      • Bread, pasta, potatoes
    • Limit foods high in fat and sugar
  • Eat often and take second helpings
    • Choose more than the minimum number of servings from each food group in the Food Guide Pyramid
  • Eat nutritious snacks
    • Snack 2 to 3 hours before meals to avoid spoiling your appetite
  • Build muscle
    • A supervised resistance training program will help you gain weight by increasing muscle mass
calculate your risk
Calculate your Risk
  • Go to the American Heart Association Risk Calculator connected to the class website
    • If you don’t know your blood pressure type in 120 for systolic and 80 for diastolic
    • If you don’t know your cholesterol type 150 for total cholesterol, 50 for HDL and 100 for LDL
fad diets
Fad Diets
  • Weight-loss plans that are popular for only a short time
    • Often limit food variety
    • Severe food restriction deprives the body of all the nutrients it needs
    • Weight lost is usually regained
  • Liquid Diets
    • Dieter replaces all food intake with a special liquid formula
    • Generally do not meet the body’s caloric needs
    • Deprives body of nutrients
    • Abstain from eating
    • Deprives body of nutritional needs and energy
    • If limiting liquid, faster may become dehydrated
    • Not recommended for any extended period of time unless under a health care professional’s supervision
  • Diet Pills
    • Suppress appetite
    • May cause drowsiness, anxiety, racing heart or other serious side effects
    • Can be addictive
    • Some cause the body to loose more water than normal, leading to dehydration
weight cycling
Weight Cycling
  • Repeated pattern of loss and regain of body weight
  • Common among people who follow fad diets
  • Slow and steady weight loss is the best strategy for long lasting results
eating disorders
Eating Disorders
  • An extreme, harmful eating behavior that can cause serious illness or even death
  • 90% of those suffering are female while only 10% are male
  • Serious health problem
  • Professional health is needed
anorexia nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming obese results in severe weight loss from self-imposed starvation
  • Emotional and physical consequences
  • Most often develops in teenage girls and young women
  • Symptoms
    • Extremely low caloric intake
    • Obsession with exercising
    • Emotional problems
    • Unnatural interest in food
    • Distorted body image
    • Denial of a problem
  • Health Consequences
    • Loss of bone density
    • Low body temperature
    • Low blood pressure
    • Slowed metabolism
    • Reduction in organ size
    • Irregular heart beat
    • Death
  • Treatment
    • Stay at a clinic
    • Hospital
    • Psychological treatment
bulimia nervosa
Bulimia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which some form of purging or clearing of the digestive tract follows cycles of overeating
  • Person often follows a strict diet and then binges (quickly consumes large amounts of food) followed by purging
    • Vomit
    • Laxatives
  • Symptoms
    • Distorted body image
    • Unnatural interest in food
    • Trips to the bathroom after meals
  • Health Consequences
    • Dehydration
    • Kidney damage
    • Irregular heart beat
    • Destruction of tooth enamel
    • Tooth decay
    • Damage to the tissues of the stomach, esophagus, and mouth
    • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Treatment
    • Medication
    • Psychological counseling
binge eating disorder
Binge Eating Disorder
  • Disorder characterized by compulsive overeating
  • Health Consequences
    • Weight gain
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Heart disease
    • Stroke
    • High blood pressure
    • Gallbladder problems
    • High cholesterol
    • Increased risk of certain cancers
  • Treatment
    • Psychological counseling
    • medication
  • Need professional medical and psychological help
  • Support groups
  • Clinics
  • All eating disorders are serious
  • If you believe a friend might be developing an eating disorder, discuss the problem with a trusted adult