Warm Up • Complete the “K” section of the KWL chart about what you already know about cells. Think about what you’ve heard on the news and in other classes. You may write down what you know in bulleted notes. • In the next blank page of your notebooks, write at the top KWL chart. You will be asked to cut and paste this chart into your notebook tomorrow.
Agenda • Warm-up • Objective: Students will be able to identify the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells • Notes on introduction to cells • Read Article • Complete Chart • Draw a Prokaryotic Cell • Exit Ticket • Complete “W” section and turn in KWL chart
Directions • You do not need to write down what is on each slide word for word • I have underlined and put in bold the information that I expect you to write in your notebooks • I encourage you to find ways to shorten words or abbreviate. Examples: • “Something” s.t. • “The cell is the most basic unit of life” cell = basic unit of life
I. Cell theory a. A theory is a well tested hypothesis that can explain a broad range of observations b. The cell theory applies to all living things c. The cell theory has three main Principles
Principle # 1 All organisms are made of one or more cells. • Some organisms are made up of just one cell • Others are multicellular or made up of many cells
Principle # 2 The cell is the most basic unit of life.
Principle # 3 All cells are produced by preexisting cells.
cell membrane cytoplasm Bacterium (colored SEM; magnification 8800x) II. All Cells A. Tend to be microscopic B. Have a few key STRUCTUREs: i. are enclosed by a membrane. ii. are filled with cytoplasm. iii. Contain genetic material
III. Two types of Cells Both types of cells contain the root word “karyose” which refers to the nucleus a. Prokaryotes • “Pro” means before • “Pro” + “karyose” = before a nucleus b. Eukaryotes • “eu” means true • “Eu” + “karyose” = having a true nucleus
Read the article • Answer the questions in your notebook as you read.
IV. Prokaryotic Cells A. Are the most basic cells B. Unicellular = made of one cell C. Contain simple STRUCTUREs • Cell membrane • cytoplasm • genetic material (DNA) just floats around in the cell • Organelles, like ribosomes, that do not have membranes D. Example: Bacteria
V. Eukaryotic Cells A. Contain the same simple STRUCTUREs of Prokaryotes B. Contain a nucleus which holds the genetic material C. Have multiple organelles with membranes D. Can be Unicellular or Multicellular E. Example: Plant or Animal cells
Draw a Prokaryotic Cell When you’re done…. Label each of the parts below Start to fill in the “W” section of your KWL chart. You should write questions about things you want to learn in complete sentences.
Exit TicketDirections: Take out a half sheet of paper and write your name, date and period at the top. • What does the word “prokaryote” mean? • What are the two main things that prokaryotes do NOT have? • What are the three principles of the cell theory?
Warm upWrite the questions and answers in your notebooks! • Which type of cell contains a nucleus and organelles? • What do ALL cells have in common? (Name 3 things) • Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells? • Do we need cells to be alive?
Agenda • Warm up & Collect Reading Guides • Objective: SWBAT create a foldable that contains the structures and functions of each organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell. • Foldable • Draw prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and label all their parts • Exit Ticket
What are organelles? • Organelles are specialized STRUCTURES that perform important jobs within eukaryotic cells • Our body contains organs. Each organ has a specific role to play, which impacts the body as a whole. An organelle is like an organ for the cell.
For each organelle (cell organ) I will give you its STRUCTURE and its FUNCTION. • The STRUCTURE is a short description of what the organelle looks like, where it is found, and how we can recognize it. • The FUNCTION is what the organelle does…it’s purpose.
Cytoplasm • STRUCTURE: jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and/or organelles • FUNCTION: It supports the cell… kind of like bubble wrap or packing peanuts protect a package.
I. Nucleus • STRUCTURE:large organelle in the center of the cell that stores most of the genetic information. - The “brain” or control center of the cell. b. FUNCTION: -Stores genetic material (DNA) that code for proteins - Controls most cell processes -Involved in DNA replication during cellular division
II. Cellular membrane • STRUCTURE: thin, flexible layer of lipid that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment. • FUNCTION: • Controls what goes in and out of the cell • Provides protection
III. Ribosome • STRUCTURE: small organelles made of RNA and proteins that are found on endoplasmic reticulum or in the cytoplasm. • Function: Makes proteins by linking together amino acids.
IV. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): • Structure: interconnected system of folded membrane attached to the nucleus. Can be rough or smooth. • Function: • site of ribosomes (only rough ER) • site of production of proteins and lipids
V. Golgi Apparatus: • Structure: Closely layered stacks of folded membrane NOT attached to the nucleus • Function: process, sort and deliver proteins to other organelles or outside of the cell. - Sometimes modify and package proteins
VI. Mitochondria: • Structure: bean-shaped organelle with cristae (folds) on the inside and a double membrane. • Function: supply energy to the cell in the form of ATP by breaking down sugars.
VII. Lysosomes • Structure: small membrane-bound organelles that are filled with enzymes. • Function: Break down… • Molecules for the cell to use • Damaged or worn-out cell parts • Invading bacteria or viruses
VIII. Vacuoles • Structure: fluid-filled sac that is large in plant cells and small in animal cells • Function: Used to store materials like water, food and enzymes as well as provide support for plant structures.
IX. Cell Wall • Structure: A rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells. • Function: To provide support, protection, and shape for the cell • The cell walls can attach to one another to support the organism • Cell walls are made of different materials depending on the organism • Example: Cellulose
X. Chloroplast • STRUCTURE: have a double membrane and stacks of disc-like shapes containing chlorophyll. • FUNCTION: Use energy from sunlight to make food for the cell through the process of photosynthesis. • Chlorophyll gives plants their green color • Like mitochondria because it provides energy
Exit Ticket • Which organelle makes proteins and is located in the cytoplasm or on the surface of the ER? a. nucleus b. golgi apparatus c. ribosome 2. Which STRUCTURE packages and transports proteins to other organelles or outside of the cell? a. Golgi apparatus b. lysosome c. endoplasmic reticulum 3. Which STRUCTURE in the picture to the right stores the genetic information? 4. What is the function of lysosomes in the cell? Answer in complete sentences.
Warm-up • What is an example of a monosaccharide carbohydrate? • Which structure in a cell breaks down the carbohydrate from number 1 into a form of energy the cell can use? • Name three organelles whose function deal with proteins (Ex. Transports proteins)
Agenda • Warm-up & Collect Reading Guide 3.2 • Objective: SWBAT compare and contrast plant cells and animal cells AND determine whether viruses are living using evidence. • White Board Practice • Compare and Contrast Plant and Animal Cells • Viruses – Video clip
White Board Directions • Use the color marker that you receive • Only write answers to the questions on the white boards • If I see you writing notes or doodling, I will take the white board away and you will have to turn in the answers on a sheet of paper. • Please close the marker caps when you are not using them
Can you identify the organelles? I’m a real “powerhouse” That’s plain to see I break down food To release energy What am I? ______________________
I’m strong and rigid Getting through me is tough I’m found only in plants But I guess that’s enough What am I? ______________________