Motivation • Research on motivation attempts to determine why people behave the way they do and to understand the ramifications of such behavior. The changing role and interaction of technology at work is one factor that explains why motivation remains an important research topic. Additionally, our movement to an information and service-based economy may have varying effects on motivation factors and resulting employee behaviors.
Motivation • Motivation is derived from the Latin word movere, “to move.” The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines motivation (root motive) as “something (as a need or desire) that causes a person to act” while motivate is defined as “the object influencing a choice or prompting an action.” • Several common themes among motivation definitions refers to action or behavior toward goals, specifically, the individual and environmental antecedent factors that cause action, the goal itself, and feedback acting as a moderator which can influence the intensity of achieving the goal
Motivation • An understanding of the complexities of contemporary organizations and how individual’s differing motivations influence needs, actions and goals is essential to fully comprehend the effects of variations in other factors such as leadership styles, job design, salary, as they relate to performance, satisfaction, and other outcomes
Other Definitions • Direction of behavior • Strength of the response (effort) once employee chooses to follow a course of action • Persistence of the behavior or how long the person continues to behave in a particular manner • Different motivators for different cultures/situations • Emphasis on different factors depending on what is being studied.
Why does an organization want to motivate employees? • Fear of unions • Promote positive climate • Able to pay workers less • Other reasons?
Motivation Popular definition of “motivation” • Willingness to perform • Regarded as an individual-level attitude • Understood to be affected by “leadership” May be nothing more than an internal attribution when observed behavior is consistent or inconsistent with organizational expectations
Motivation Defined Implications Associated with This Definition • Behavior is purposive rather than random- People exhibit both positive (work done on time) and negative (arrive late for work) behavior for a reason • Motivation arouses people to do something- People are unlikely to change a behavior or do something different unless they are motivated to do so • Motivation causes people to focus on a desired end-result or goal • Motivation fuels the persistence needed to exhibit sustained effort on a task Motivation: Psychological processes that cause the arousal direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed.
Individual Inputs Skills Ability, Job knowledge Dispositions & Traits Emotions, Moods, &Affect Beliefs & Values Motivational Processes Arousal Attention Intensity & & Direction Persistence Motivated Behaviors Job Context Physical Environment Task Design Rewards & Reinforcement Supervisory Support &Coaching Social Norms Organizational Culture Enable, Limit A Job Performance Model of Motivation
A Job Performance Model of Motivation (cont.) Skills Individual Inputs Motivated Behaviors Focus: Direction, What we doIntensity: Effort, how hard we tryQuality: Task strategies, the way we do itDuration: Persistence, how long we stick to it Motivational Processes Performance Job Context Enable, Limit
Motivation Theories • Content theories – focus on factors within the person that energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior. They attempt to determine the specific needs that motivate people (individual needs for job satisfaction, behavior, and reward systems). Aware of differences in people • Process theories – describe and analyze how behavior is energized, directed, sustained and stopped by factors external to the person. Understand how individuals make choices based on preferences, rewards, and accomplishments.
Content Theories • Within a person, individual need deficiencies activate tensions that trigger a behavioral response. Managers should: • Determine what needs trigger performance, group and personal behaviors • Offer meaningful rewards to satisfy needs • Know when it is appropriate to offer rewards • Adapt to people’s changing needs
Motivation Theories • Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) - content • Nach Theory (McClelland) - content • Reinforcement Theory - process • Self-Efficacy Theory (Bandura) • Job Design (Enlargement, Rotation, Enrichment) • Two-Factor Model (Herzberg) - content • Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham) • Empowerment (Spreitzer) • Equity Theory (Adams) - process • Expectancy Theory (Vroom) - process • Goal-Setting (Locke) - process
Outcome of Interest Need Reinforcement Equity • Choice to pursue a course of action • Effort X X X • Performance X X • Satisfaction X X • Absenteeism X X • Turnover X X Motivation Theories and Workplace Outcomes
Outcome of Interest Expectancy Goal Setting JobCharacteristics • Choice to pursue a course of action X • Effort X X X • Performance X X • Satisfaction X • Absenteeism X • Turnover X X Motivation Theories and Workplace Outcomes (continued)
Self-ActualizationDesire for self-fulfillment. EsteemNeed for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. LoveThe desire to love and be loved. SafetyConsists of the need to be safe. PhysiologicalMost basic need. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
Research on Maslow • Very few studies can confirm or refute the theory. It may be that the dynamics implied are too complex to be operationalized and confirmed by scientific research. Helps to explain aspects of human behavior but it is not accurate/thorough to explain individual behavior. • A satisfied need may lose its motivating potential. Managers are advised to motivate employees by devising programs aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs. • Managers high in the organization place greater emphasis on self-actualization
Alderfer ERG Theory • Existence – needs satisfied by factors such as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions • Relatedness- needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships • Growth – needs satisfied by creative contributions • In addition to satisfaction-progression hierarchy, there is frustration-regression.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Views on job satisfaction • Extrinsic conditions or job context include pay, status, working conditions. The presence of these conditions does not motivate the person but the absence results in dissatisfaction. Also called hygiene factors • Intrinsic conditions or job content include feelings of achievement, increased responsibility and recognition. The absence does not lead to dissatisfaction but when present they build levels of motivation that result in good job performance. Also called motivators. • Requires an enriched job to motivate employees
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model Motivators No Satisfaction SatisfactionJobs that do not Jobs offeringoffer achievement achievement,recognition, recognition, stimulating work, stimulating work,responsibility, responsibility,and advancement. and advancement.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model (continued) Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction No DissatisfactionJobs with poor Jobs with goodcompany policies, company policies,and administration, and administration, technical supervision technical supervision,salary, interpersonal salary, interpersonalrelationships with relationships withsupervisors, and supervisors, andworking conditions. working conditions.
McClelland’s Need Theory Need For Achievement: Desire to excel and accomplish something difficult. Achievement-motivated people prefer • tasks of moderate ability that they can achieve • situations in which their performance is due to their own efforts • more feedback on their success and failures than do low achievers Need For Affiliation: Desire to spend time in social relationships and activities. Need For Power: Desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.