Motivation Why employees do what they do when they do it
What is motivation? • What motivates you? • An Internal State • Causes a person to do something • Varies in direction, intensity and persistence
Theories of motivation • Motivation is very important in I/O psychology • Behavior is over-determined • Many theories of motivation • Explanations of why we “behave” • Proximal vs. Distal Motivation
Need Theories • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological • Safety • Social Esteem • Self-Actualization • ERG Theory • Existence • Relatedness • Growth
McClelland’s Achievement • Need for Achievement (nAch) • Like Responsibility • Calculated risks/Moderate Goals • Need more feedback on performance • Need for Power • Need for Affiliation
How to Measure nAch • Thematic Appreciation Tests (TAT) • Stories of ambiguous pictures • Interpretations tell of person’s motivational needs • Validity!! • Self-report tests • Research generally supportive
Behavior Based Models • Looking employees’ behavioral outcomes
Reinforcement Theory • Positive Reinforces • Rewards: Get something you like! • Increase motivation • Negative reinforcement • Avoid something you dislike • Increase motivation • Punishment • Get something you don’t like • Decrease motivation
Reinforcement Schedules • Fixed Interval • Variable Interval • Fixed Ratio • Variable Ratio • Extinction • QG: What rewards do you get at your job?
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Do the rewards come from outside or inside the individual? • QC: Examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Goal Theory • Theory that people need are rewarded by achieving goals in behavior at work.
Locke’s Model Goal is Specific Motivation Goal is Challenging Competition from other goals Employee Commitment How goal Is Set Rewards Feedback Expectation Of Success
Job Design Models • These theories focus on what the organization can do to make jobs themselves more motivating.
Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs • Hygiene Needs • Supervision, policies, coworkers, working conditions and salary • Related to dissatisfaction • Motivator Needs • Responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, “work”, and growth on the job • Related to motivation
Herzberg’s Two Factor Needs • Lack of Hygiene Needs • Work to achieve a certain level • Continual motivation comes from Motivator Needs • Not a lot of research support • Still, has lead to job enrichment
Job Characteristics Model • Core Characteristics lead to • Psychological states lead to • Outcomes (motivation and satisfaction) • Growth Needs Strength is an important moderator • Individual’s needs to grow and be challenged at work
Job Characteristics Model • Model Research • Some support and some problems • Correlational research • Why a problem? • Again, focuses on job enrichment • Hard to measure success
Cognitive Theories of Motivation • How employees’ think about their jobs affects how motivated they are about it. • Interesting because the jobs could be objectively the same, but employees’ thoughts may be quite different!
Equity Theory • Comparing Inputs to Outputs • NOT just rewards, but effort person put into them • I=O: inputs equal outputs • I>O: Inputs greater than outputs • I<O: Inputs less than outputs
Equity Theory • Social comparison • Equity: • We’re all in the same boat • Ratios the same • Underpayment • Employee is getting LESS than coworkers • Ratios favor coworker • Overpayment • Employee is getting more than coworkers • Ratios favor employee
QG Examples • Employee I>O, Co-worker I>O • Employee I>O, Co-worker I=O • Employee I<O, Coworker I>O
Equity Theory • Individual Differences: • Benevolents • Entitleds • Equity Sensitives • Research Support • Monkeys!
Vroom’s Expectancy theory • Expectancy • Effort leads to performance • Instrumentality • Performance leads to outcome • Valence • Outcome is valued • QG: Examples in your life
Motivation and Performance • Surprisingly, motivation may not be related to performance! • Technology problems • Individual differences • E.g., Conscientiousness • Group dynamics • Organizational issues
Case Study • Get in small groups to answer the questions!