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Chapter 1. The Big Picture. QUIZ. Explain the abstractions we normally apply when using the following systems: DVD player Registering for classes on DuckTrax Walking In each case, explain what is the internal view and what is the abstract view. 2. 5. QUIZ.

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**Chapter 1**The Big Picture**QUIZ**Explain the abstractions we normally apply when using the following systems: • DVD player • Registering for classes on DuckTrax • Walking • In each case, explain what is the internal view and what is the abstract view. 2 5**QUIZ**Explain the abstraction applied in browsing the WWW: • What is the internal view? • What is the abstract view? 3**QUIZ**Connect each generation of computer hardware with its defining technology: 1st Gen. ICs 2nd Gen. Multi-core processors 3rd Gen. LSI, VLSI 4th Gen. Vacuum tubes 5th Gen. Transistors 4**Chapter 2**Binary Values and Number Systems**Converting Binary to Decimal**What is the decimal equivalent of the binary number 1101110? 11011102 = ???10 13**Converting Binary to Decimal**What is the decimal equivalent of the binary number 1101110? 1 x 26 = 1 x 64 = 64 + 1 x 25 = 1 x 32 = 32 + 0 x 24 = 0 x 16 = 0 + 1 x 23 = 1 x 8 = 8 + 1 x 22 = 1 x 4 = 4 + 1 x 21 = 1 x 2 = 2 + 0 x 2º = 0 x 1 = 0 = 110 in base 10 13**Converting Hexadecimal to Decimal**What is the decimal equivalent of the hexadecimal number DEF? D x 162 = 13 x 256 = 3328 + E x 161 = 14 x 16 = 224 + F x 16º = 15 x 1 = 15 = 3567 in base 10**Converting Octal to Decimal**What is the decimal equivalent of the octal number 642? 6428 = ???10 11**Converting Octal to Decimal**What is the decimal equivalent of the octal number 642? 6 x 82 = 6 x 64 = 384 + 4 x 81 = 4 x 8 = 32 + 2 x 8º = 2 x 1 = 2 = 418 in base 10 11**QUIZ: Convert to decimal1101 00112 = ???10AB716 =**???105138 = ???106928 = ???10**Addition QUIZ**Carry values go here 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 +1 0 0 0 0 1 1 Check in base ten! 14**Subtraction QUIZ**1 0 1 1 0 0 0 - 1 1 0 1 1 1 Borrow values Check in base ten! 15**Repeated division QUIZ**Convert 4210 to binary 42 2 = rem. 4210 = 2 19**Converting Binary to Octal**• Mark groups of three (from right) • Convert each group • 10101011 10101011 • 2 5 3 • 10101011 is 253 in base 8 17**Converting Binary to Hexadecimal**• Mark groups of four (from right) • Convert each group • 10101011 10101011 • A B • 10101011 is AB in base 16 18**Counting**Count from 5 to 17 in binary. Place the numbers in a table.**Converting Octal to Hexadecimal**Convert octal 253 into hex. 18**Converting Octal to Hexadecimal**Convert octal 253 into hex. 1010101110101011 2 5 3 A B 253 in base 8 = AB in base 16 18**Quiz on Ch.2**Convert 201023 to decimal**Chapter 03**Data Representation**Quiz**A video file is originally 3.5 GB long. We compress it to 490 MB. What is the compression ratio?**Quiz**A digital thermometer has a scale from 50 to 100 degrees (F). The temperature is represented on 7 bits. What is the smallest temperature difference that it can measure?**QUIZ**How many bits are needed to represent all the courses you’re planning to take in college?**QUIZ**Given the following representations, find in each case what actual number is being represented: • 51 • 52 • 96 • 47**EXTRA-CREDIT QUIZ**If the representation is 76, what actual number is being represented?**QUIZ**What is the representation for each of these actual numbers? • -48 • -40 • -30 • -5**Let’s use ten’s complement!**To perform addition, add the numbers and discard any carry • Now you try it • 48 (signed-magnitude) • 1 • 47 • How does it work in • the new scheme?**Adding two negative numbers**Try these: 4 - 4 -4 - 3 +3 + -3**QUIZ**What is the 8-bit two’s complement representation of these numbers? • -13 • 40**QUIZ**Perform the following operation in 8-bit two’s complement: 40 – 13**Trick QUIZ**What decimal number does this binary number represent? 1001 1110**Converting fractions from binary to decimal**Easy! Just multiply with the powers of 2, as we did for unsigned binary. Only difference is that now the powers are negative. Example: .10012 = 0. 10**QUIZ**Convert: .10112 = 0. 10**Converting fractions from decimal to binary**Remember the repeated divisionalgorithm? We apply it for the integer part of the number. To covert the fractional part, we use the repeated multiplicationalgorithm! Example: 0.43510 = 0. 2**QUIZ**Convert: 0.310 = 0. 2**QUIZ**Finite decimal fractions may have infinite binary representation! 0.310 = 0. 0100110011 2 Stop after 8 bits!**QUIZ**Convert to floating point and to scientific notation: 123.332 = -0.0034 = 0.0 =**QUIZ**Encode “Hello, world!” in ASCII Decode 67 83 32 49 49 48 from ASCII**Huffman decoding QUIZ**Decode: 1011111001010**QUIZ**Explain the similarities and differences between 00FF00 and 008800**Extra-credit question**TrueColor A 24-bit color depth: eight bits used for each number in an RGB value How many different colors can be represented in TrueColor? Please show your work.**QUIZ**Are these HiColor or TrueColor?**Extra-credit question**How many bits are needed to represent this palette? Please show your work.**3.6 Representing Video**The problem: huge amount of data! Example: In HDTV, the Frame size is defined as the number of horizontal pixels × number of vertical pixels: • 1280 × 720 • 1920 × 1080 Calculate: 1] Data rate (bits per second) for 25 fps 2] Size (bytes) of 2-hour movie**All hail the HARDWARE!**Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits(with some transistors thrown in for good measure)

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