Journal #43 • What was your main “takeaway” from this Cold War unit? • Do you believe that the US responded well to the threat posed by the Soviet Union? Why or why not? • What questions do you still have about the Cold War?
India Background: • Large country with many language spoken • Caste system:
East India Company • British want to expand trade – 1600’s • East India Company sets up trading posts • East India fights, wins against French in 1757 for control of India
East India Company • Uses army of Indian soldiers (sepoys) • Company regulated by GB • British set up policies to restrict economy of India • Restrict manufacturing • Raw materials sent to GB
Benefits and Negative Effects of Colonialism: • Negative Effects: • British hold political power • British hold economic power • Reduces self-sufficiency, leads to famine • Racist attitude of British • Positive Effects: • Huge railroad completed • Helps develop economy • Irrigation, sanitation, public health • Schools lead to increased literacy • British troops establish law
Sepoy Mutiny • 1850 – GB owns most of India • Pockets of resistance: • Resent racism • Resent Christianity • Rumor spreads in 1857: sepoys must use cartridges in rifles creased with beef and pork • British jailed soldiers who refused to bit or use cartridges • Sepoys rebelled
Sepoy Mutiny • Took E. India Company a year to regain control • Needed reinforcements of troops from GB • Indians could not unite: • Poor leadership • Split between Hindus and Muslims
Sepoy Mutiny • As a result, Britain took direct control of India • After 1877 the British Queen Victoria controlled the viceroy (Governor of India) • Mutiny only increased racist attitude of British
Nationalism Surfaces • In early 1800’s Indians begin demanding more autonomy and modernization… • Indian National Congress in 1885 and Muslim League in 1906.