Terms • Sepoy- native Indian soldiers, trained and hired by the British East India Company • Jewel in the Crown- the name given to India because of its importance to the British Empire • Sepoy Mutiny- a revolt of the sepoy troops in British India, resulting in the transfer of the administration of the colony from the British East India Company to the Crown • Raj- British domination over India
Colonization of India • 1739, Mughal forces were defeated by the Iranians • Mughal weakness led to the increasing power of regional rulers and decentralization • British, French, and Dutch companies employed men who used any means necessary to persuade Indian rulers to allow them to establish trading posts • Companies hired Indian soldiers known as sepoys • After a regional ruler overran a British fortified outpost at Calcutta, the British East India Company overthrew this ruler, persuading Mughals to recognize the company’s right to rule Bengal • The company’s forces secured victory for their candidate for the ruler of Arcot, which gave South India to the company and prevented the French from taking land • The British East India Company annexed large territories on the western coast in 1818 • British were attracted by the cotton exports from India and the huge market for British goods • British rule was indirect in some places and direct in others
Responses to Imperialism • British reforms in India were aimed at making India more like Britain • They did not want to interfere too much with Indian social and religious customs • Many people suffered because of the cheap textiles imported from Britain, and because of new reforms • The people who suffered created almost constant uprisings during the first half of the 1800s • Sepoys were also discontent because of some of the practices of the British • Bengal sepoys resented the recruitment of other ethnic groups • Hindu sepoys rebelled in 1857 • Muslim sepoys, peasants, and discontent elite joined the rebellion • British put down the rebellion in March 1858
Pros of Imperialism • India gained a centralized government • Rapid economic growth • Indians developed a sense of national unity • British created harbors, cities, irrigation canals, and other public works in India • Provided Britain with a huge market for manufactured goods • Developed new and faster transportation, such as steam boats and railroads • Telegraph lines were put up, allowing messages and information to be sent faster than ever before • Widow burning, slavery, female infanticide, and prohibition against widow remarriage were outlawed • Spread of western schools • Indian middle class prospered from the increase in trade
Cons of Imperialism • Competition from British textile mills put many Indians out of business leading to widespread poverty • Occupation by the British • Indian Civil Service program excluded Indians • British felt racist contempt for the Indians • Freer movement of people led to spread of cholera all over • Most people still had little access to good sanitation
Effects of Imperialism • Industrialism spread to India • Some Hindu beliefs were changed as reforms were made to make India more like Britain • Feelings of nationalism and national unity led to independence movements and rebellions • Increasing poverty continued in India, along with malnutrition and illiteracy
History after Imperialism • Gained independence in 1947, after many campaigns characterized by non violent civil disobedience • The area of Pakistan became its own country because of its high concentration of Muslims • India became a republic in 1950 • In 1991, economic reforms were began that transformed India into one of the fastest growing economies in the world
Cities and Religions in India • This map shows the major cities in India today and the concentration of different religions in those cities.
Railroad Map of India • This map shows the extensive railroad system that was put into place in India as a result of the Industrialization that came during British rule
Industrial Map of India • This map shows the factories and industries that are present in India today. These factories demonstrate how India was impacted by the Industrialization that was started by the British.