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Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy. Foreign Policy. Monroe Doctrine: Example : Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, after an 11 year war. Spain could not re-colonize it. . Foreign Policy. 1898 – Spanish American War “Jingoism” and yellow journalism

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Chapters 29-30 Foreign Policy

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Chapters 29-30

Foreign Policy

foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Monroe Doctrine:

Example: Mexico achieved independence from Spain in 1821, after an 11 year war. Spain could not re-colonize it.

foreign policy1
Foreign Policy
  • 1898 – Spanish American War
    • “Jingoism” and yellow journalism
    • Started to assist Cuba in their quest for independence from Spain
    • Sent USS Maine to Havana to protect Americans – Blown up in Havana Harbor
    • Spread quickly to Spanish held territories in Asia
    • Result – America acquired ___ new territories
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • __________ – remains unincorporated US territory
  • __________– now an incorporated US territory
  • ______ – allowed to become independent only after including “Platt Amendment” to their constitution
    • Platt Amendment allows American interference for virtually any reason (Military intervention 5 times between 1906 and 1961)
philippine insurrection
Philippine Insurrection
  • Philippine Islands
    • After throwing off Spanish rule, sought independence
    • USA refused
    • Filipinos fought unsuccessfully for over 2 years
    • Lost approx. ___________ people, more than half civilians
    • Allowed independence after __________

On March 7, 1906, US troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood massacred as many as 1,000 Filipino Muslims, known as Moros, who were taking refuge at Bud Dajo, a volcanic crater on the island of Jolo in the southern Philippines. US soldiers pose for the camera in the aftermath of the massacre. (Photo from The National Archive)

foreign policy2
Foreign Policy
  • Roosevelt Corollary
    • USA would intervene in domestic issues in the Western hemisphere if security was an issue
    • “________________________________and you will go far.”
    • ___________ Diplomacy – Panama Canal
foreign policy3
Foreign Policy
  • Taft’s ____________________
    • Financial support to regimes that supported the USA government and industry
    • Protect US financial interest with the military if necessary

“…United States shall extend all proper support to every legitimate and beneficial American enterprise abroad. “ William Howard Taft

foreign policy4
Foreign Policy
  • Wilson’s ___________________
    • condemn
    • spread
    • stay out of
    • reverse previous mistakes
      • The Philippines –
        • Granted territorial status and step toward future independence
      • Puerto Rico –
        • Puerto Ricans became naturalized citizens, granted by Congress, not the Constitution. They do not have full rights. (Amended in 1940 to full citizenship)
      • Panama Canal – ended free tolls for American companies
foreign policy mexico
Foreign Policy - Mexico:
  • Background
  • (1810 – 1866) Conflicts with Spanish, French, and their own governments – power changed hands several times
  • (1876 – 1911) President Porfirio Diaz assumed power
  • *repressive regime
  • *increased industrial strength and foreign investment
  • *benefited wealthy landowners and foreigners
Madero – Wealthy landowner that ran for office and lost – started the Mexican Revolution that toppled Diaz; Madera became President.
  • Victoriano Huerta and others overthrew Madera in a coupe 1913
  • Rebel leaders Venustiano Carranza, Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Alvaro Obregon continued to fight
  • Zapata – Native American Revolutionary in the south
    • US Intervention (1913-1914)
    • Wilson refused to recognize Huerta
    • Tampico Incident – US sailors from the USS Dolphin were arrested in the port of Tampico and released unharmed. Infuriated Americans.
    • Germany sent an arms supply to Mexico to aid Huerta; Americans seized the port of Vera Cruz
    • Argentina, Brazil, Chile (ABC) organized a proposal for a provisional government and Huerta was ousted in 1914.
    • Revolution Winds Down – 1915
    • After Huerta fled, Villa and Zapata controlled 2/3 of Mexico
    • Venustiano Carranza returned to Mexico and became “1st Chief”
    • The US recognized Carranza
    • Pancho Villa’s raid
    • 10 civilians, 8 soldiers died; town was destroyed; 100 Mexicans died
    • _________________________entered Mexico to apprehend Villa
    • After searching for almost a year, Wilson recalled him.
    • 1916 - V. Carranza called a constitutional convention and re-organized the government
    • Called for placing public welfare above individual interests
    • Nationalized ______________________.
    • 1917 – received __________________from Germany
moralistic diplomacy failures
Moralistic Diplomacy Failures
  • Haiti – invaded & occupied for 19 years; 10,000 Haitians died resisting (1915-1934)
    • USA sent navy to Haiti 26 times between 1849 and 1913
  • Dominican Republic – invaded and occupied for 8 years (1916-1924)
  • Mexico – Chasing Pancho Villa (1917)
  • Cuba and Panama (1918)
  • World War I – could not maintain a biased neutrality
the road to war
The Road to War
  • Causes of World War I
        • Imperialism
        • Militarism
        • Nationalism
        • Alliances
the road to war1
The Road to War
  • Imperialism
    • Search for new colonies in
    • France & United Kingdom - prime colonies
    • Japan - newcomer but colonized Korea, Taiwan, & parts of China
    • _________ – new but lacking in strength
    • _________, youngest country, trying to establish an empire
the road to war2
The Road to War
  • Militarism
    • Belief that a countries problems can be solved with
    • Buildup of military forces
    • Military has control over ______________
    • _________________- as countries industrialized they began to see themselves as invincible
the road to war3
The Road to War
  • Nationalism
    • Defined simply as pride in one’s country
    • _____________ to the ‘nth’ degree
    • Countries acted solely in their own self-interest
    • Pride in country centered around _____________; other groups were inferior
    • Groups that want their own countries (Kurds)
the road to war4
The Road to War
  • Alliances
    • European powers that pledged mutual protection
    • Took what should have been an isolated incident and expanded it into a _____________
    • Countries thought they were ______________ because of their alliances
the road to war5
The Road to War

The spark that ignited the powder keg:

  • ________ was a province of the Austrian-Hungarian empire
  • ________________visited Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia on June 28, 1914
  • Assassinated by _______________
  • July 28, 1914 ___________ declared war on __________

Serbian killed F.F.

A-H declared war on Serbia

Russia allied

w/ Serbia

Germany allied

w/ A-H

Germany invaded France

through Belgium

France allied

w/ Russia

U.K. allied

w/ Belgium

World War I

the road to war7
The Road to War
  • Central Powers –
  • Allied Powers –
the great war begins
The Great War begins


the great war
The Great War
  • Germany invaded France via Belgium
  • Came within 30 miles of Paris
  • Offensive by French & British held them back at the Marne
  • Trench warfare began in September of 1914
the great war1
The Great War
  • Germans reached a _________ in France
  • Russians invaded to their east - became a two front war for the Germans
  • Germans used _________- to try to cut-off supplies and troop movements from the U.K.
  • British blockaded the _________and created severe food shortages in Germany
the great war2
The Great War


  • Verdun – German offensive
  • Feb. 24, 1916 – Dec. 18, 1916
  • Germans used poison gas on the French
  • No strategic gain for either side
  • Casualties
    • French
    • German
    • Total casualties
the great war3
The Great War
  • Somme – offensive by French/British forces
  • July 1, 1916 to November 18,1916
  • Used tanks in battle (with little effect)
  • Offensive ended with Allied Forces gaining a total of 18 kilometers
  • Casualties
    • British -
    • French -
    • Germans -
    • Total – over
the great war4
The Great War
  • America declared it neutrality and continued to trade with both sides
  • 1/3 of the American population was made up of ______________________________
  • Irish immigrants initially side with the Central Powers
  • Many Americans oppose warfare and militarism on principle and want to stay out of the war
the great war5
The Great War
  • Gradually public opinion shifted toward the Allied Powers
  • Propaganda played a major role in this shift
  • Business leaders pressured Congress to prepare for war to protect their trade and assets in the U.K. and France
the united states declares war
The United States Declares War
  • “_______________” ended when the British began arming merchant ships
  • Early in 1915 Germany advised Americans not to travel on British liners
  • ____________ traveled from New York to the U.K. in May, 1915 with over 1200 passengers and ‘miscellaneous’ cargo
the united states declares war1
The United States Declares War
  • German U-boat encountered the in the
  • Fired a torpedo and it sank within a few minutes
  • Over 1200 people, including 128 Americans, died
  • German claimed it was transporting
the united states declares war2
The United States Declares War
  • Immediate demands were made to declare war on Germany
  • President Wilson urged patience
  • Germans pledged to stop shooting unarmed vessels
  • War was averted in 1915
  • Wilson vowed in 1916 to stay out of the war
the united states declares war3
The United States Declares War
  • American industries continued to do business with the British
  • U-boats were not very effective
  • Cut off from Germany by British blockade
the united states declares war4
The United States Declares War
  • The _______________began in February, 1917.
  • Overthrew the monarchy and soldiers mutinied
  • Allied position weakened – fighting shifted to the Western front
  • USA had been reluctant to support _______________
the united states declares war5
The United States Declares War
  • While General Pershing continued to chase Pancho Villa around Mexico…..
  • _______________________was intercepted and made public
the united states declares war6
The United States Declares War
  • Note was intercepted by the British and turned over to the Americans in March, 1917
  • From German Foreign Minister to German Ambassador to Mexico
  • Proposed
zimmerman note
Zimmerman Note

Text of Decoded message:

"We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANN.

the united states declares war7
The United States Declares War
  • Early in 1917 Germans reneged on their pledge and began sinking merchant vessels
  • Under pressure from the USA they made the ____________, promising not to shoot on unarmed vessels without warning
  • Within weeks they reneged on their pledge
the united states declares war8
The United States Declares War
  • American bankers and industrialists pressured Wilson to declare war
  • Russian Revolution put pressure on the Allies
  • Zimmerman note built resentment toward Germany
  • Reneging of the Sussex Pledge signaled the end of negotiations

On April 2, 1917

President Wilson

asked Congress for a

declaration of war

against Germany.

Congress quickly


americans on the european front
Americans on the European Front
  • America needs time to prepare for war
  • American troops help turn the tide in Europe
  • Conditions in Europe are horrendous
americans on the european front1
Americans on the European Front
  • Selective Service Act - May 1917
    • Males age 21-30 required to register
    • By wars end, 2,800,000 were actually drafted
  • Thousands of women volunteered to serve as nurses, drivers, and clerks
  • General Pershing is the commander of US troops in Europe
  • Troops were strictly ___________ - African Americans and Latinos served in separate units with ‘white’ officers
americans on the european front2
Americans on the European Front


  • Millions of troops needed to be trained and shipped to Europe
  • Men were trained in the use of rifles, bayonets, gas masks, and grenades
  • Ships used the ____________to reduce losses
  • American Expeditionary Force - called _________________
americans on the european front3
Americans on the European Front


  • _______________continued in France
  • Germany signed a _______________with Russia in March, 1918
  • Germany immediately began new offensives along the western front
  • The Allied Powers struggled to hold the lines - Germans were within 50 miles of Paris (again)
americans on the european front4
Americans on the European Front
  • In ____________the Americans entered the fighting in force
  • Throughout France, fresh American troops helped to turn back the German offensive
  • By _______________the Germans were in full retreat
americans on the european front5
Americans on the European Front
  • Aircraft were successfully utilized in World War I by both sides
  • Bi-planes engaged in dogfights, reconnaissance missions, and bombing raids
  • Both sides had heroes - aces that shot down enemy planes
  • __________________________were also used
americans on the european front6
Americans on the European Front
  • African American units segregated
    • not allowed to serve in marines
    • kept out of combat in navy and army
    • 369th infantry
ending the war
Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire made a separate peace with the Allies in the autumn of 1918

Austrian-Hungarian Empires collapsed as Poles, Czechs, and Slovaks, declared their independence

The Germans ordered their fleet in Kiel to leave and confront the British

Instead, on October 29th they mutinied

Kaiser fled to Holland on November 10th

Ending the War

is signed on


_____________ Outbreak
  • ____________was introduced to Europe by Americans in 1918
  • Within months, it spread around the world
  • Viruses flourish in unsanitary conditions and are easily spread by people in close proximity
  • Approximately_______Americansand _________worldwide died from Influenza
final tallies
Final Tallies
  • Americans lost 117,000 soldiers in a little over a year of fighting (53,500KIA;63,000other)
  • Russia, Germany, France, and Austria-Hungary each lost over 1,000,000
  • British lost 900,000
  • Total 16 Million (8,500,000 KIA + 7,500,000 other)
  • Civilians died from disease and starvation during and after the war
lasting effects
Lasting Effects
  • Map of Europe was redrawn - entire countries disappeared and new ones emerged
  • Genocide was committed by the Ottomans toward the Armenians
  • Imperial Russia was lost and the Soviet Union was born
  • Lost generation - so many young men died or were maimed that their losses effected their countries for many years
americans on the home front1
Americans on the Home Front
  • Mobilizing the nation
americans on the home front2
Americans on the Home Front

Financing the war:

  • _________________
    • raised 15 billion dollars directly from people
  • _________________
    • Raised more than 20 billion dollars
    • Propaganda posters related buying bonds to patriotism and/or saving our soldiers lives
americans on the home front3
Americans on the Home Front
  • War Industries Board
americans on the home front4
Food Administration

guaranteed high prices to farmers

asked Americans to voluntarily conserve meat and wheat

Victory Gardens

rationed meat, sugar, and other scarce products

Fuel Administration

asked Americans to conserve coal and oil

closed factories due to coal shortages

Forbid coal miners from going on strike

Americans on the Home Front

Lever Food & Fuel Control Act - 1917

americans on the home front6
Americans on the Home Front
  • Suppressing opposition
    • __________________– became a crime to utter, print, write, or publish....(anything negative about) the government, the flag, the military, the draft, war bonds, or the arms industry.
americans on the home front7
Americans on the Home Front
  • Sedition Act (1918) strengthened the Espionage Act
  • ______________________the supreme court upheld these acts because words could represent a clear and present danger in times of war
americans on the home front8
Americans on the Home Front
  • Over 1000 dissenters were imprisoned, including _____________and members of the IWW
  • Others were attacked by vigilantes and beaten or lynched
  • Personal freedoms and the Bill of Rights were seen as secondary to the war effort
social mobility for women minorities
Social Mobility for Women & Minorities
  • ____________- 500,000 African Americans migrated north for factory jobs
  • After the war, most of them remained in the north but struggled to keep their jobs
  • Over 400,000 women took care of the farms, ran small businesses, and worked in factories
treaty of versailles
Treaty Of Versailles
  • Armistice of November 11, 1918 simply ended the war
  • The _____________- France, England, USA, and Italy - met in Paris in January 1919 to discuss the actual peace treaty
  • President Wilson arrived with his ___


  • The other 3 were more interested in spoils
treaty of versailles1
Treaty Of Versailles
  • Treaty was finally signed at Versailles in May of 1919
  • Germany admitted responsibility for the war.
  • __________________________(32 billion)
  • __________________was formed
treaty of versailles2
Treaty Of Versailles
  • Rhineland became a ____, up to 31 miles past the Rhine
  • Saar Basin occupied by the Allies for 15 years
  • Alsace-Lorraine (a disputed territory between France and Germany) was returned to France
  • German port of ______ would be open to Poland
treaty of versailles3
Treaty Of Versailles
  • ___________________ was created out of the Sudetenland and part of Austria-Hungary
  • ______________ was created from Serbia, Bosnia-Herzogenia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia
  • Germany’s military was disarmed
treaty of versailles4
Treaty Of Versailles
  • Germany lost all of her colonies in Africa to the League of Nations, to be administered by the British and French
  • Germany lost all of her colonies in Asia to the League of Nations, to be administered by Australia, New Zealand, and Japan
treaty of versailles5
Treaty Of Versailles
  • Germany’s new Republic would have democratic elections
  • Re-establish independent states of
treaty of versailles6
Treaty Of Versailles
  • President Wilson agreed to the treaty, even though he opposed many of the provisions
  • Treaties in the USA have to be ratified by the
  • Refused to ratify the treaty
  • They eventually wrote their own treaty declaring the war over
treaty of versailles7
Treaty Of Versailles
  • President Wilson toured the USA trying to summon support for the _____________
  • He had a stroke and was incapacitated in September, 1919 until March, 1920
  • Unbeknown to the American people, his wife Edith ran the country for over six months
the war finally ends
The War Finally Ends
  • Americans were tired of European problems and wanted to remain isolated from future problems
  • America entered the “roaring 20’s” soon after and put the war behind them
  • In spite of American’s willingness to forget it, the world changed forever due to this war