Foreign Policy Now 17
Tools of Foreign Policy • Diplomacy: the conduct of international relations, particularly involving the negotiation of treaties and other agreements between nations. • Foreign service officers: the diplomatic and consular staff at US embassies abroad.
Trade and Economic Policies • Normal trade relations status: the international trade principal holding that the least restrictive trade conditions offer to any one national trading partner in the trading network. • This gets nations to follow US policy. Ex: Vietnam and Pakistan • Sanctions: Penalties that halt economic relations Ex: Iran • Globalism: the interconnectedness between nations in contemporary times.
The Military Option • The use of the US military is a strong symbol of policy. • Ex: Gulf war, Vietnam, Korea, WWII, and WWI. • The goal is regime change which is the replacement of one government with another government by facilitating the deposing of its leader or party.
Creators of foreign policy • The President and Executive branch is the foremost foreign policy maker. This power comes from the Constitution. • The State and Defense departments also aid the President with this policy. • There are over 30,000 employees in the state department that help with the policy making. • Some of these are ambassadors who carry out the country desk position which is the official operation of the US gov. in each country that has diplomatic ties to the US.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • The Department of Defense is the military side of the foreign policy. • They help control all branches of the military. • They are also in charge over any operations that occur oversea.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • The NSC is another shaper of foreign policy. • They deal with the most top security matters. • They coordinate foreign policy approaches among the carious government agencies that will implement them. • There has been conflict between the NSC advisor and Secretary of State. • Other groups involved are the CIA and FBI. • Committees have been setup to investigate these two groups and came to find out that their was a communication break down. Ex: 9/11
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • Because of this communication breakdown President Bush made an intelligence czar called director of national intelligence. This person oversees all the intelligences agencies. • Extraordinary rendition: apprehending an individual believed to be a terrorist and transferring the person to another nation.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • Congress also has some power by the Constitution to control foreign policy. • They can declare war and have to approve Presidential treaties. • Their greatest power is to control the purse strings • The war powers act of 1973: law that limits presidential use of military forces for sixty days, with an automatic extension of thirty days if the president requests. • Thus the President has been able to wage full scale wars without congresses approval.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • Military Industrial Complex: Eisenhower warned Americans about this influence on foreign policy. • 1. Congress wants troops to succeed, Military want troops to be safe, Military Industry wants to sell products and make money. • 2. An iron triangle forms between military industries, individuals in the military, and the defense industry. Retired military personal act as a lobbyist.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • The media can influence foreign policy by reporting on it and giving a certain viewpoint on the issue. • Agenda setting and public awareness: focus on certain issues. • Investigations
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • Public Opinion: Negative public opinion has an effect on policy making, especially when it comes to matters of war. • Ex: would be timeline for removing troops out of Iraq. • Foreign policy is not a big issue with the general public whereas domestic policy is.
Creators of foreign policy cont.. • Private Citizens can control foreign policy by the power of the purse. An example would be them buying/ not buy certain products because of a cause (RED). • Micro Lending is the loaning poor entrepreneurs small amounts of money that enable them to buy what they need to create a business. • Individual as advocates: • Public diplomat is an individual outside government who promotes his or her countries interests and thus helps to shape international perceptions of that nation. • Intermestics: the influence of domestic interests on foreign policy.
Early U.S. Foreign Policy • Monroe Doctrine (1823) • American continents were no longer open to European colonization • Any effort to extend European political influence into the New World would be considered by the United States "as dangerous to our peace and safety.“ • The United States would not interfere in European wars or internal affairs, and expected Europe to stay out of American affairs.
Rise of American Imperialism and Colonialism • Manifest Destiny (1840’s-90’s) • It was the providential mission of the U.S. to extend itself over the frontier, claiming it as a god-given, national right • While the Monroe Doctrine essentially ended European expansion in the Western Hemisphere (but not American expansion) • Used to justify westward expansion of U.S., annexation of Texas, U.S. involvement in the Philippines, and Spanish-American War • U.S. rises as a world power following the Spanish-American War
World War I • Prior to WWI, the U.S. experienced a period of isolationism • Many Americans, both in the public at large and in Washington, did not want to get involved in World War I • Woodrow Wilson leads U.S. to war • Post WWI - League of Nations • While the League of Nations was an enormous failure, it was the precursor to United Nations
Rebirth of Isolationism • Following the end of World War I, the U.S. drops back into a period of isolationism • Domestic problems dominate, and foreign policy is very limited until World War II • The Great Depression was the focus of the nation and its leaders • Public opinion was focused on problems at home, rather than the rise of dangerous dictatorships in Europe
Post World War II Foreign Policy:The Cold War • Containment (1947) • Formally part of foreign policy in 1947 through NSC-68 • Containment was a strategy to limit and prevent the expansion of the Soviet Union and communism • Kennan called for ``a policy of firm containment, designed to confront the Russians with unalterable counter-force at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests of a peaceful and stable world."
Post World War II Foreign Policy: The Cold War • Marshall Plan (1947) • Economic recovery plan for Europe, following the end of World War II • Two main objectives: • Rebuild Europe physically and economically • Strengthen Western Europe to protect against the Soviet Union • McCarthyism and the Red Scare (Early 1950’s) • Fear of Communism within American borders • Feeds fear of communism spreading elsewhere
Post World War II Foreign Policy: The Cold War • Domino Theory (1950’s-60’s) • Notion that if one country falls to communism, it will spread to all surrounding nations • Led to U.S. involvement in Korea and Vietnam • Failure of the U.S. in Vietnam • Domino Theory fails • Containment loses some of its acceptance in Washington
Cold War Heats Up, Burns Out • Cold War dominates U.S. foreign policy from the end of WWII until the fall of the Soviet Union • Escalation of military size, weapons arsenals • Fall of Soviet Union, Berlin Wall comes down • Marks the end of nearly 50 years of preparing for war with one enemy • No one left to fight
Post Cold War Foreign Policy • Democratic Peace Theory • Originated in 70’s, but popularized in late 80’s • Began to influence foreign policy in early 1990’s • No two democratic nations have ever fought a war • This theory is at the center of U.S. push for democratization • Spreading democracy will promote peace • Spreading democracy will lead to higher levels of trade between nations
Foreign Policy in 90’s • Democratic Peace • Powell Doctrine • For any engagement: • We must have exhausted all other options (diplomacy before force) • There must be a national security risk by the target • Have a Clear Objective • Use Overwhelming Force • There must be strong public support for action • Have a Clearly-defined Exit Strategy
Post September 11th • 9/11 signifies a drastic shift in foreign policy • War on Terrorism • Enemy unclear • Bush Doctrine • First-strike, pre-emptive war is legitimate means for preventing future threats to national security
War In Iraq • Bush Doctrine markedly different than Powell Doctrine • Bush vs. Bush debate • Bush Doctrine is dramatically different than previous Bush administration foreign policy • Did war in Iraq meet the requirements of the Powell Doctrine?
Other Effects of September 11th • Rebirth of patriotism • Incredibly high levels of presidential approval • Didn’t last long • American cynicism – no evidence to support claims that cynicism has declined • Civil Liberties – American civil liberties have been seriously threatened by new legislation aimed at curtailing terrorism (PATRIOT Act) • Suspected terrorists have been denied traditional civil liberties and due process of law • Military tribunals, unlimited detainment, deportation