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Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy

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Foreign Policy

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  1. Foreign Policy A nation’s plans for dealing with other countries.

  2. BASIC QUESTIONS • Are we the world’s policeman? • Is any nation that goes along with us an “ally,” or only those that are reasonably free and democratic?

  3. BASIC QUESTIONS • Specific questions about terrorism • How can we wage war against terrorists in remote areas of the world? • What do we do about countries that harbor terrorists? • How can the military be redesigned to make it effective against terrorists?

  4. The Constitution and Foreign Policy • The Framers believed it was best to give most foreign policy powers to the single executive rather than Congress. • The President has the power to command the military, meet with foreign leaders and make treaties.

  5. The Constitution and Foreign Policy • Congress has the power to declare war and approve treaties.

  6. U.S. Department of State The Department of State carries out the president’s foreign policy. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Makhdoom Shah MehmoodQureshi, Pakistan's Minister of Foreign Affairs.

  7. Department of State Carries out the president’s foreign policy. • GOALS OF THE STATE DEPARTMENT • Protect national security. • Provide international leadership in fostering world peace. • Insure balance of power between strong and weak nations. • Cooperate with other nations to help solve international problems. • Promote human rights and democratic values. • Foster cooperative trade among nations.

  8. Washington’s Vision: Don’t get mixed up in the business of other nations. Washington’s Farewell Address, 1796 “Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace and harmony with all… In the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular nations, and passionate attachments for others, should be excluded; and that, in place of them, just and amicable feelings towards all should be cultivated.”

  9. James Monroe: The Monroe Doctrine 1820s European nations should not interfere with nations of Central and South America or the U.S. would take action.

  10. Early to mid 1800s: Manifest Destiny Steady expansion of U.S. territory westward.

  11. Teddy Roosevelt: Roosevelt Corollary The U.S. should act as a “policeman” in Central and South America, and take action in order to maintain stability. “The army and the navy are the sword and the shield which this nation must carry if she is to do her duty among the nations of the earth.” Inaugural Address of President Teddy Roosevelt

  12. Woodrow Wilson: • The Fourteen Points and League of Nations • 1918 • Wilson sought a way for nations to settle their differences peacefully by creating an organization of nations. • The Senate did not agree and blocked the U.S. from entering.

  13. Franklin D. Roosevelt: World War II (Late 1930s – 1945) Before Pearl Harbor – supply the allies with weapons, but stay out of the war. After Pearl Harbor – lead the war against dictators in Europe and Asia.

  14. Franklin D. Roosevelt: World War II World War II convinced the American people that no nation can live in isolation from other nations.

  15. Harry Truman – Ronald Reagan (1945-1990) Cold War Fight against the spread of communism everywhere in the world. (Encourage countries to take our side, punish countries which take the side of the Soviet Union)

  16. George W. Bush: Preemptive War Doctrine The U.S. doesn’t need to wait to be attacked by a hostile nation. We can take military action against direct, serious threats AND less immediate threats.

  17. George W. Bush: Preemptive War Doctrine The Preemptive War Doctrine was used to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq by U.S. forces.

  18. Foreign Policy • American foreign policy of the 21st Century is based on these fundamental beliefs: • America’s freedom is best protected by ensuring that people in other countries are free. • America’s prosperity depends on the prosperity of other countries. • America’s security relies on a global effort to secure the rights of all the people of the world.

  19. Four “Worldviews” Worldview: A vision of how the United States should respond to world problems. • ISOLATIONISM • The opinion that the United States should isolate itself from world affairs. • This worldview after thousands of Americans died in World War I, a war that accomplished little and did not make the world “safe for democracy.” • Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the U.S. tried to stay out of European conflicts.

  20. Four “Worldviews” ISOLATIONISM The attack on Pearl Harbor ended our policy of isolationism forever.

  21. Four “Worldviews” • CONTAINMENT • The U.S. should resist the expansion of aggressive nations (esp. the Soviet Union). • After World War II (1940s – 1960s), the U.S. and Britain worked to build a network of defensive alliances with European and Asian nations to contain our enemies.

  22. Four “Worldviews” • DISENGAGEMENT • “Don’t get involved.” • The belief that the U.S. was harmed by its war in Vietnam and so should avoid similar events. • Critics of Vietnam concluded that containment was the wrong worldview. For many years, military action has been debated with this question: Will this be another Vietnam?

  23. Four “Worldviews” • CONTAINMENT VS. DISENGAGEMENT • Political leaders with these two worldviews competed for influence from the 1970s through the 1990s. • Carter – disengagement • Reagan – containment • George H.W. Bush – containment • Clinton – disengagement until the Balkan war, then a new worldview emerged.....

  24. Four “Worldviews” • HUMAN RIGHTS • The U.S. should try to improve the lives of people in other countries. • In the Balkans (Bosnia & Kosovo) it appeared that Serbian attacks resembled genocide. • U.S. policy shifted to a “never again” mindset to prevent another Holocaust.

  25. Four “Worldviews” WHAT’S NEXT? Many feel that a new “worldview” must emerge in order for us to defeat the current threats facing the U.S. Isolationist, containment, disengagement and human rights strategies will not work to defeat terrorism that is motivated by religious extremism and unconnected to national governments.

  26. HOT SPOTS The “Axis of Evil” IRAQ IRAN NORTH KOREA

  27. IRAN HOT SPOTS In 1953, the CIA organized a coup to overthrow Dr. Mohammad Mosaddeq, the elected president of Iran. This created a permanent dislike for the U.S. by many factions of the Iranian people.

  28. IRAN HOT SPOTS The U.S. helped Shah Reza Pahlavi, the monarch of Iran, regain control of the nation. The Shah was considered a brutal dictator by many Iranians.

  29. IRAN HOT SPOTS In 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini inspired the Iranian Revolution. The Shah was overthrown. Iranian college students attacked the U.S. embassy and held 53 Americans hostage for 444 days.

  30. IRAN HOT SPOTS Relations with Iran have been very bad ever since the Revolution. The U.S. currently has no diplomatic relationship with Iran.

  31. IRAN HOT SPOTS ? While it is not certain, some believe that the current President of Iran, MahmoudAmadinejad , was one of the hostage-takers. We don’t like him...he hates us.

  32. IRAN: Foreign policy HOT SPOTS • Iran is a threat to the security of the Middle East. • Iran is actively seeking to develop nuclear weapons. • Trade sanctions in place. • The U.S. has no diplomatic relations with Iran.

  33. NORTH KOREA HOT SPOTS • After World War II, the Korean peninsula was partitioned, with the USSR in control of the north and the U.S. in charge of the south. • The nation of North Korea was established in 1948 with Kim Il Sung as “President for Life.”

  34. NORTH KOREA HOT SPOTS • The North invaded the South in 1950, sparking the three-year Korean War. • The war saw the U.S. and Britain lead U.N. forces against North Korea backed by the Chinese army.

  35. NORTH KOREA HOT SPOTS • Kim Il Sung died in 1994 and his son, Kim Jong Il, assumed leadership as the dictator of North Korea. • Kim Jung Il was an unpredictable, eccentric leader. The U.S. government considered him to be very dangerous.

  36. NORTH KOREA HOT SPOTS Kim Jung Il chose his youngest son, Kim Jong-un, to be the next leader of this “hereditary dictatorship.”

  37. NORTH KOREA HOT SPOTS The people of North Korea are taught to hate the United States.

  38. NORTH KOREA: Foreign policy HOT SPOTS • North Korea has developed and tested nuclear weapons and is a real threat to other nations. • North Korea is under U.N. sanctions as punishment for weapons testing. • The U.S. has no trade relations with North Korea. • U.S. continues to pressure North Korea for “six-party talks.”

  39. PAKISTAN HOT SPOTS • A very unstable country, mostly Muslim. • Birthplace of the Taliban. • The government is on our side, but many of the people hate the U.S. • The government’s hold on power is shaky.

  40. PAKISTAN HOT SPOTS • The U.S. military raid to kill Osama bin Laden (May 2011) angered and embarrassed the Pakistani government. • They have been less cooperative with us since.

  41. PAKISTAN HOT SPOTS • Violence is common in Pakistan. • Big question: Does the army keep Pakistan’s nuclear weapons secure?

  42. PAKISTAN HOT SPOTS • The government has little authority in the “tribal areas” of Pakistan. • Enemy fighters move easily across the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  43. PAKISTAN: foreign policy HOT SPOTS • U.S. relations with Pakistan are more complex than with any other nation. • We support the government of Pakistan. It is our ally in the War on Terror. • U.S. aid following Pakistani flooding was immediate and massive. • U.S. military is not allowed to place soldiers and weapons in Pakistani territory. • Pakistan has nuclear weapons and has tense relations with it’s neighbor and our true friend, India.

  44. AFGHANISTAN HOT SPOTS • The Taliban government allowed bin Laden to operate terrorist training camps in Afghanistan. It was in these camps that men prepared for the September 11 attacks. • In October 2001, the U.S. invaded Afghanistan, eliminated the Taliban government, and chased al Qaeda and Taliban soldiers into the eastern mountains.

  45. AFGHANISTAN HOT SPOTS The current government is headed by President HamidKarzai, who has been widely criticized for corruption.

  46. AFGHANISTAN: foreign policy HOT SPOTS • The U.S. is at war with Taliban fighters in Afghanistan. • In 2009 President Obama sent 50,000 additional troops. • The troop surge has restored peace to some areas. • We continue to support President Karzai but have little trust in him. • The President’s current plan calls for a withdrawal of all U.S. troops by the end of 2014.

  47. The State Department has issued “travel warnings” for the following nations, indicating that travel to those countries by Americans is considered dangerous. HOT SPOTS Guinea    Lebanon    Cote d'Ivoire    Philippines  Congo, Democratic Republic of Mali    Eritrea   Central African Republic   Israel, the West Bank and Gaza    Kenya Afghanistan  ***Burundi  Nigeria Haiti    Iran *** Sri Lanka   Yemen    ****************Saudi Arabia    Uzbekistan Iraq  ***Pakistan   ***Chad    Nepal    Georgia    Sudan   Algeria    Syria Somalia ***