Foreign Policy By: Annelise Buck, Michael Richardson, and Robert Middleton
Foreign Policy Goal Definition • Peace and healthy, beneficial relationships with other countries • Involves making choices about relations with the rest of the world • Includes diplomatic, military, and economic goals, actors, and actions
Who is involved? • Who are the global players in foreign policy? • International Organizations like the UN, International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization • Regional Organizations like NATO, European Union • Multinational Corporations • Nongovernmental Organizations • Terrorists • Individuals
Who is involved? • Who are the players in foreign policy in the U.S. Government? • President • Congress • Other Agencies • Diplomats • Director of national intelligence
Foreign Policy Continuum Blockade (No Fly Zone) Economic Sanctions Declared War Foreign Aid Isolationism Neutrality Diplomacy Political Pressure (Collective Security) Military Intervention (Drones, Covert Action, Police Action)
A History of Foreign Policy • 1800-1868—Isolationism • 1803-The Louisiana Purchase • 1812- War of 1812 • 1823-Monroe Doctrine • 1848- Mexican War • 1861- Civil War • 1870-1917—Imperialism • 1872- America acquires Samoan Islands • 1875- Treaty with Hawaii • 1898- Spanish-American War • 1899- Open Door Policy between China and U.S. • 1901- Panama Canal • 1904- Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine • 1907- second Hague Conference
A History of Foreign Policy Continued • 1917-1945—try to remain neutral, but end up fighting in two world wars • 1917- U.S. enters WWI • 1919-1933- return to isolationist policy/ Great Depression • 1927- Kellogg-Briand Treaty aims to outlaw war • 1933- Franklin Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy with Latin America • 1939-1941- Neutrality Acts/ Agreement to lend-lease policy with Allies in WWII • 1941- Pearl Harbor attacked, we enter WWII • 1945- Atomic Age (Bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima)/ end WWII • 1945-1962- End WWII, Begin Cold War • 1947- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan • 1948- U.S. helps Berlin • 1949- NATO signed by Western countries, Warsaw Pact by Eastern Countries • 1950- China becomes communist—Begin Korean War • 1957- Eisenhower Doctrine • 1960- Castro takes over Cuba—communism • 1961- Bay of Pigs fails in Cuba/ Berlin Wall Built • 1962- Cuban Missile Crisis
A History of Foreign Policy Continued • 1962-1978– Vietnam War & Détente • 1962- American troops sent to Vietnam as advisors • 1963- Nuclear Test Ban Treaty • 1964- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • 1968- Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty • 1969- Nixon’s Vietnamization Policy • 1970- Secret bombing of Cambodia revealed; students shot at Kent State • 1972- Nixon visits China, period of détente between Soviet Union and U.S., negotiation of arms control treaty • 1973- Peace treaty with North Vietnam • 1976- Nuclear Test Pact—limits underground tests • 1978-1987—Cold War • 1978- Camp David—peace between Egypt and Israel • 1979-American embassy personnel held hostage by Iranians • 1983- U.S. invades Grenade/ Terrorist attack on U.S. Marines in Beirut • 1985- meeting between Gorbachev and Reagan • 1986- Iran-Contra Affair uncovered • 1987- Nuclear Arms Treaty signed
A History of Foreign Policy Continued • 1987- Present—Cold War Ends/ Involvement in Middle East • 1989- Berlin Wall falls—communism ends in Germany, Poland, Hungary • 1990- Communism ends in Soviet Union—Germany reunited • 1991- U.S. defeats Iraq in Persian Gulf War/ Yeltsin new leader of Russia, Soviet Republics gain independence • 1994- Trade embargo ended with North Vietnam/ troops occupy Haiti to promote democracy • 1995- Peace between Bosnia, Serbia, and Croatia—NATO and U.S. troops sent • 1997- Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia join NATO • 1998- 2 American embassies destroyed by American bombs—air strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation • 1999- Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty defeated in Senate • 2000- Peace in Middle East broken by Israel and Palestine • 2001- September 11th—invasion of Afghanistan & removes Taliban from power • 2003- invasion of Iraq—removes Saddam Hussein from power • 2004-U.S. gives sovereignty to Iraq—large peacekeeping force there
Foreign Policy Today • Iraq • Hope to soon pull responsibly out of Iraq, democracy, terrorism • Afghanistan • Kill Al Qaeda leaders/weaken their cause, withdraw troops by 2012, terrorism • Iran • Nuclear non-proliferation, human rights, terrorism • North Korea • Nuclear non-proliferation • Russia • Nuclear nonproliferation, building a relationship • Africa • Democracy, human rights, aid, Darfur, poverty, oil • Libya, Egypt uprisings—promote democracy • China • Energy, climate change, human rights, trade, economic issues
Foreign Policy Today • India • Human rights, poverty, aid, trade • Middle East • Peace for Israel and an establishment of Israel and a Palestinian state, • Oil relationships with Saudi Arabia • Western Europe • Keep healthy and beneficial alliances • South America • Immigration problems, trade
Problem • Problems of immigration: • Policy of benign neglect • Weakens national security • Effects the economy negatively • Burden on schools and hospitals
Problem: Continued • Advantages of immigration • Documented immigrants paying taxes add 88,000 dollars yearly to the economy • Documented immigrants paying into Social Security added 463 billion dollars to the system • Cultural additions • Low cost labor is feeding, clothing, cleaning, restaurant workers, building houses and caring for the elderly
Current U.S. Birthright Code • U.S. Birthright Code states: • The following shall be nationals and citizens of the United States at birth: • (a) a person born in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof; • Many immigrants use this to stay in the United States and have their children be U.S. citizens • Gain many more opportunities
Resolution • The problem with the current birthright laws is that it allows any undocumented immigrants to come into the United States and have children, who are then technically US citizens because of where they are born. This law acts as an incentive for illegal immigrant mothers to come into the US and have their children. We believe a resolution is needed to fix the problem with this law. • Amnesty would be granted for all illegal immigrants currently in the United States. • The Birthright Law would be changed to not allow citizenship based on whether or not a child is born in the United States • If a child’s mother is an illegal immigrant, and gives birth to a child while in the US, this child is not a US citizen. • In order for a child to become a US citizen based on birthright, the child’s mother must be a legal US citizen or at least a legal resident (green card/student) • If the child and mother wish to become US citizens, they must go through the necessary, legal routes.
Who carries it out? • National Government Policy Action: (what we plan to do in our resolution) • Committees named above will debate and write legislation regarding how to regulate and implement the new policy • Department of Homeland Security (cabinet department) will implement policy and carry out enforcement • Budgetary impact: • All immigrants granted amnesty will become new taxpaying citizens • Protecting the border and preventing illegal immigration would have the same cost as it does now. • US Immigration and Customs Enforcement is the main branch of the Department of Homeland Security that deals with preventing illegal immigration. • Director of ICE is John Morton.
Who carries it out? • Senate/House Committees that deal with illegal immigration: • Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control • Department of Homeland Security • US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants • Subcommittee on Immigration, Border Security, and Citizenship • State agencies • State courts hear many immigration-related cases • Police/border patrol • Employers • E-verify—make mandatory • Employers will be offered incentives to have an illegal immigrant-free staff
Winners and Losers • Winners of amnesty for illegal immigrants/abolishment of birthright codes: • Illegal workers • The Illegal unemployed • Employers • School systems • Hospitals • American citizens
Winners and Losers • Losers of amnesty for illegal immigrants/abolishment of birthright codes • American citizens without high school diplomas • Legal residents that are high school graduates • Nurses, teachers, caregivers • Children who may have been born here to illegal parents • Latin America
Globally • Those who lose a part of the population to immigration • Have less people to support and less people living in poverty, less mouths to feed • Could result in less people in the workforce • Those who gain people due to immigration • More people to support, crowding • Lowers prices—more people in the workforce (but reduces jobs for current citizens) • Depends on country whether it is a net gain or loss
Discussion Questions • How do you think the problem of illegal immigration should be solved? • Better border control, etc. • Do you agree with granting amnesty to illegal immigrants currently residing in the United States? • Do you agree with the abolishment of the birthright codes? • Do you think it is the job of states or the federal government to make policy on illegal immigration? • Do you think the Arizona law that allows policemen to ask suspicious people for their papers should be enacted as a federal law? Do you think it promotes racism?
Supplemental Reading • http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ViewpointsDetailsPage/ViewpointsDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Viewpoints&disableHighlighting=true&prodId=OVIC&action=e&windowstate=normal&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CEJ3010535218&mode=view • Do you think it is the states’ duty to make immigration policy? • Why do you think the federal government cannot create effective policy in this area? • Do you agree with the states that are making life easier for immigrants, or the states that are making life harder?
Bibliography • http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/foreign-policy • Textbook • AP Barron’s Book • http://www.cairco.org/data/quick_facts.html • http://www.cairco.org/info/background.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_impact_of_illegal_immigrants_in_the_United_States • http://www.martynemko.com/articles/immigration-reforms-winners-and-losers-in-workplace_id1278 • http://azstar.analysisonline.org/site/aoarticle_display.asp?sec_id=140002434&news_id=140001400&issue_id=1 • http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/8/1401.html